Hazardous use of alcohol is a public health problem which accounts for 4.0% of global disease burden. The prevalence of alcohol use among drivers of commercial vehicles has been documented, but little is known about the social determinants and consequences of alcohol use among them. This study was therefore carried out to assess the pattern, social determinants, and consequences of alcohol use among drivers of commercialvehicles in Calabar, southern Nigeria.A cross-sectional study was conducted among 360 commercial drivers. Eighteen out of 32 clusters of motor parks in Calabar were selected by simple ballot and all consenting drivers in the selected clusters were enrolled. An interviewer-administered, semi-structured questionnaire which included the World Health Organization alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT), was used to collect data. The prevalence of alcohol use was 84.4%. The largest contributor to the logistic model of alcohol use was concurrent use of other drugs. Features of dependence were exhibited by more than a third of participants. A multi-prong approach to alcohol control is recommended.
Calabar, the capital city of Cross River State is in the Southeastern part of Nigeria. It is a charming, quiet and peaceful place, and despite the great poverty, the people of Calabar are friendly and smile often. Calabar is one of the oldest trading cities in Nigeria, set on a hill overlooking the river. It is quite picturesque. Calabar was established as a center of slave trade by the British in 17th century, it grew to become one of the biggest. At the end of slave Trade, the city was a major port for Palm Oil trade from the South East of Nigeria. Calabar holds great socio-economic significance in Nigeria. It is a city of great opportunities and enormous possibilities for wealth creation and other human endevours. This book tells the architectural story of this one time capital of Nigeria from the traditional point of view. It reveals much about the type of architecture that held and made the slave trade flourish in this part of Africa. It is part of a two volume series highlighting the findings of a Ph.D. programme conducted by the author in Old Calabar.
An integrated approach to the problems of vision and vehicle control is presented in this volume. Current work on all aspects of vision and its relationship to vehicle design is reported on, including the internal and external design of vehicles, visual displays, and the perceptual and cognitive capabilities of the controller of the vehicle. Environmental influences, the effects of alcohol, and visual standards are among the topics discussed. All types of vehicles (including ships and combat aircraft) are considered, though the majority of papers deal with automobiles and their drivers.
Uganda is one of the highest consumer of alcohol in the world. However, HIV care and treatment programs have limited evidence based strategies for alcohol use among persons living with HIV. Instead HIV care and treatment programs have adopted a no alcohol position when on ART policy to deal with poor adherence among patients in care programs. In our findings, a half of the patients interviewed (50%, 95% CI 45-55) consumed alcohol. Men were more likely to consume alcohol compared to women (OR= 2.39, 95% CI 1.53-3.72) and lack of information on adverse effects of alcohol was associated with alcohol use. (OR= 0.54, 95% CI 0.33-0.86). HIV prevention and control programs need to consider alcohol use in reducing the rate of HIV transmission and re-infection among PLH in resource limited settings.
The study examined the influence of passengers’ attitude, age, sex and risk perception on the deriving behaviour of inter-city commercial bus drivers in Osun state. Primary data were used in the study. It involved systematic observation and the use of questionnaire. Participatory observation was conducted on passengers and drivers of commercial buses plying Ile-Ife – Ilesa, Ilesa - Osogbo and Osogbo-Ile-Ife routes. Two different forms of questionnaires were administered on the drivers and passengers respectively. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used. A total of 375 respondents were purposively selected from the six motor parks in a ratio of three passengers to a driver. The results showed that the passengers’ sex have significant influence on the driving behaviour of inter-city commercial bus drivers Results also showed that the attitude of passengers have no significant influence on the driving behaviour of inter-city commercial bus drivers.The study concluded that road users needed to be better enlightened on road uses and safety in Nigeria.
Alcohol consumption among college students continues to be a concern on college campuses. It is estimated that a large majority (83%) of college students use alcohol (Johnston, O’Malley, Bachman, & Schulenberg, 2008). The negative consequences of alcohol consumption range broadly in both domain and degree of harm to the individual and society. Protective behavioral strategies (PBS) can be utilized to reduce the degree of negative consequences of alcohol consumption when people choose to drink. Anxiety sensitivity is the fear of the symptoms of anxiety including the fear of somatic symptoms, the fear of social consequences of anxiety, and the fear of losing control mentally (Reiss, Peterson, & Gursky, 1988). The study examined the relationships among alcohol consumption, anxiety sensitivity, PBS and the negative consequences of alcohol consumption among 706 college student drinkers in the southeastern United States. A weak positive correlation was found between anxiety sensitivity and PBS use. Amount of alcohol consumed emerged as a predictor of the negative consequences of alcohol consumption. PBS use emerged as a predictor of the negative consequences of alcohol consumption.
The book "Commercial Motorcycling and Poverty Reduction in Ushongo Local Government Area of Benue State"is an empirical research study that took a different view at poverty reduction efforts in Nigeria in general and Benue State in particular.Over the years successive Nigerian governments have evolved policy measures aimed at reducing poverty but the population of Nigerians living in poverty keeps increasing. There appear to be a positive relationship between poverty reduction efforts and poverty in Nigeria which is not a good development. Commercial motorcycling in Nigeria due to its accident-prone nature is seen as a non-desirable trade. However, this study makes use of Ushongo LGA which is a rural community given that poverty situation in Nigeria is worst in rural communities that lack even the very basic needs of life. Incidentally, the commercial motorcycling activity proved to be a veritable poverty reduction measure in this community.This finding surprisingly is in line with similar studies carried out in towns and cities in Nigeria and elsewhere.Thus,the findings of this study can help in redirecting the poverty reduction policies towards self-made efforts in Nigeria.
Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (MAPs) are among the group of plants that are threatened in Nigeria. The demand for the plant parts is increasing and majority of the medicinal plant products for sale in the markets come from the wild collections. The medicinal usefulness of these plants cut across their use in treating all forms of human diseases and deficiencies. The therapeutic uses of over fifty (50)medicinal plants described were described in this book, in addition to the listing and explanation on close to thirty (30) threatened medicinal plants in Nigeria. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of cultivating medicinal plants were highlighted. This publication concludes by recommending the cultivation of highly demanded medicinal plants, among many other recommendations necessary for the sustainability of the nation''s diversity and wealth of medicinal plants.
This book is very important for anyone who want to know about malaria among the nomadic Fulani. The book expresses how nomadic Fulani viewed malaria in their own perspective. The book has shown how some factors influences malaria epidemiology among nomadic Fulani population. The current trend of malaria control is diagnosis, treatment and the use of Insecticide treated net. This book displayed some important roles of the nomadic Fulani in the use of Rapid Diagnostic Test and distribution of anti-malaria drugs.
This study was conducted to establish and document the role of alcohol consumption in criminal behavior among the youth, by taking a case study of Kakamega municipality. The Kenyan youth in this study being described as one aged between 15- 35 years in line with the Kenya national youth policy, the study aimed at bringing to light how the behavior of these youths is affected by consumption of alcohol, leading them to committing crimes. The study acknowledged the significant place of the youths in the society based on the fact that they constitute the majority of the population and are considered to have the potential to be the most productive category of the population. Due to their continually increasing consumption of alcohol, and in response to the rising rate of crimes committed by them, the study’s findings were intended to answer three main questions: What is the perceived link between alcohol use and criminal behavior? How does alcohol use influence decisions leading to criminal acts? And what interventions might be done to increase the knowledge of the link between alcohol use and criminal behavior among the youths?
Availability of information on improved technologies is an important ingredient for agricultural development. However, Nigerian women farmers have low access to technological information. The use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) among these women in accessing information on improved agricultural practices has not been adequately explored. Use of ICTs among women farmers in north-eastern Nigeria was assessed in this study. Findings revealed that, Women farmers used ICTs to access information on fertiliser sources and application, credits, grants and loans, child care and nutrition, market prices and location, crop pests; diseases and control. Radio, television and mobile phone were the most used ICTs. Seclusion status, education, Social participation, awareness, cosmopoliteness and residence location had likelihood of increasing the use of ICTs. Women farmers in north-eastern Nigeria had high awareness of ICTs and used them in accessing agricultural and other livelihood information. However, the unfavourable attitude and low awareness and use of new ICTs need to be addressed to increase the potential to deliver agricultural information to women farmers.
The book provides insight into the association between the personality traits of impulsivity, aggressiveness and self-reported drug and alcohol use. The participants to the study reported in this book were invited to respond to standardised self-report measures of alcohol and drug use, impulsivity and aggressiveness. Although they do not suggest causation, the computed outcomes from the data collected revealed that impulsiveness was significantly and positively correlated with self-reported drug and alcohol use. The association between the various measures of impulsivity and drug and alcohol use persisted, while no relationship was observed between aggressiveness and drug and alcohol use among the participants. In a stepwise linear regression analysis based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and the Drug Abuse Screening Test, self-reported drug and alcohol use was highly related to impulsiveness, with the sensation seeking and lack of premeditation components significantly contributing to the prediction. The results are discussed in terms of the need for impulsivity-targeted interventions for individuals who are at a high risk of drug and alcohol misuse.
This book is an analysis of the social motivation for code-switching by Edo-speaking people of Edo State, Nigeria. The analysis is based on real-life communicative encounters obseved over a period of time. The book highlights the different reasons informing the way Edo-speaking code-swtch. Some of the reasons, among others, are to accomodate other linguistic groups, to index modernity, multiple identities, for cultural deference, use lexicon of other domains and use in discussing restricted cultural issues such as taboos and sexual overtones.
There is an upsurge in the crime of kidnapping in Nigeria. The phenomenon which started in the Niger Delta region of the country subsequently spread to other regions especially the southeast region. This book examined the crime of kidnapping in southeast Nigeria especially in Anambra and Abia states. The cross sectional survey design was adopted in the study. Several theories of crime were reviewed in the study. Many factors were found to be responsible for kidnapping in the region. Prominent among them are unemployment, debased value system and unprecedented penchant for materialism. The consequences of kidnapping were found to be enormous. They include among others, failure of businesses, death, lack of interpersonal trust, fear of being kidnapped. Based on the findings of the study, the researcher recommended among others, value re-orientation, provision of job opportunities and skill acquisition for the unemployed, use of sufficient technology to monitor the activities of kidnappers etc. This book will be of immense benefit to students of criminology in Nigeria, Africa and all over the world.