Optical networks present a promising candidate for the next generation ultra-high-speed networks due to its potential ability to offer huge bandwidth at low costs. These networks should have the ability to maintain service continuity to end-users in presence of network failures. Therefore, survivability has become a critical issue for the next generation optical networks. In this book, we demonstrate the stat of the art survivability techniques used in highly-survivable optical networks with focus on restoration techniques as promising techniques in terms of capacity utilization and blocking probability. Mohamed A. Azim distinctive approach, explores a new survivability scheme employed in optical networks namely, Active Restoration (AR). The AR scheme combines the advantages of the proactive protection and reactive restoration techniques while trying to avoid their shortcomings as verified by extensive simulations and analytical models. The book presents a step-by-step guide to survivability techniques and analytical modeling that can help researchers to find relevant ideas and open research problems on network survivability as well as developing their analytical models.
With the current explosion in network traffic, and mounting pressure on operators’ business case, Self-Organizing Networks (SON) play a crucial role. They are conceived to minimize human intervention in engineering processes and at the same time improve system performance to maximize Return-on-Investment (ROI) and secure customer loyalty. Written by leading experts in the planning and optimization of Multi-Technology and Multi-Vendor wireless networks, this book describes the architecture of Multi-Technology SON for GSM, UMTS and LTE, along with the enabling technologies for SON planning, optimization and healing. This is presented mainly from a technology point of view, but also covers some critical business aspects, such as the ROI of the proposed SON functionalities and Use Cases. Key features: Follows a truly Multi-Technology approach: covering not only LTE, but also GSM and UMTS, including architectural considerations of deploying SON in today’s GSM and UMTS networks Features detailed discussions about the relevant trade-offs in each Use Case Includes field results of today’s GSM and UMTS SON implementations in live networks Addresses the calculation of ROI for Multi-Technology SON, contributing to a more complete and strategic view of the SON paradigm This book will appeal to network planners, optimization engineers, technical/strategy managers with operators and R&D/system engineers at infrastructure and software vendors. It will also be a useful resource for postgraduate students and researchers in automated wireless network planning and optimization.
Base station cooperation (BSC), also known as Cooperative Multi-Point (CoMP), has been identified as a key radio access technology for next-generation cellular networks. This work creates a foundational framework that extends BSC transmission to provide spatial spectrum sharing (SSS) through MIMO null beamforming while enjoying cooperative stream transmission. SSS is investigated by introducing the protected Gaussian MIMO broadcast channel (PGMBC), a GMBC with receive power constraints. Applications of the PGMBC are identified and its capacity region is derived. In addition, precoding schemes are developed to mitigate intercell interference and intersystem interference. The simulations show that through BSC, significant throughput gains over non-cooperative null-beamforming schemes can be achieved. However, to maximize the benefits of BSC in practical networks, the location and configuration of BS sites must be planned accordingly. This work introduces a fundamental framework for planning BSC networks. The impacts of BSC on coverage, capacity, complexity are investigated. In addition, a cell planning procedure for distributed, dynamic fractional BSC networks is described.
The explosive growth of mobile internet and bandwidth-intensive applications is creating a huge demand for bandwidth. The backbone networks spanning large areas are subject to various failures, such as natural disasters, operation errors, and malicious attacks. A robust network provisioning scheme that can survive failures is desirable to avoid data and revenue loss. Multipath provisioning can significantly outperform conventional single-path provisioning in resource efficiency, service resilience, and flexibility. This book investigates the algorithm design for multipath provisioning considering the differential-delay constraints. This book has proposed novel adaptive methods for disaster failure protection and recovery. The algorithm presented in this book has practical usage significances for modern data center service provisioning. It also provides a good guidance for multipath provisioning research.
Clearly divided into three main sections, this practical book familiarizes readers with the area of planning in petroleum refining and petrochemical industry, while introducing several planning and modeling strategies encompassing single site refinery plants, multiple refinery networks, petrochemical networks, and refinery and petrochemical planning systems. It equally provides an insight into possible research directions and recommendations for the area of refinery and petrochemical planning. Furthermore, several appendices are included to explain the general background necessary, including stochastic programming, chance constraint programming, and robust optimization. For engineers and managers working in the petroleum industry as well as academic researchers in production, logistics, and supply chain management.
This work is of so importance for physics and electrical engineering students. In this work we show how infinite electric networks consisting of identical resistors can be analyzed using Lattice Green's Function. We present a formalism which is valid for a d- dimensional perfect infinite networks, and a perturbation part for square and Simple Cubic networks. Finally an experimental part for the square and Simple Cubic networks (both perfect and perturbed) has been introduced.
Human activities now depend heavily on information transfer and communication over networks typically application include telemedicine, electronic commerce, and emergency calls, there for any network failure can seriously affect human life. Thus, future networks strongly need robust or survivable network architecture against failure in order to minimize social and economic damage. Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) techniques have been researched and developed to realize future network that will support broadband and multimedia services and can realize cost-effective network that a wide variety of services and applications. So, in this project we developed a simulation model for studying design of ATM switch architecture to have less loss of cells at the switch.
Radio Network Planning is the process of assigning frequencies, transmitter locations and parameters of a wireless communications system to provide sufficient coverage and capacity.It remains an essential process for network operators. 4G also known as "Beyond 3G"- refers to the fourth generation of wireless communications. Network operators are deploying 4G wireless networks to effectively deliver next-generation broadband services to an expanding base of consumers eager to experience media-rich applications. Still operators are quite aware of the fact that effective 4G radio planning indeed is a challenging issue. Again, from academic perspective, the detail of this radio planning process isn’t easily available for a thorough understanding. As a result, it almost has become a common view to leave this domain to industry alone. While 4G LTE promises to increase network capacity, improve QoS and significantly enhance data rates; brings new design challenges. This book aims to cover the 4G radio network planning process through LTE. A blended approach- combining background theory and practical through Dhaka city LTE radio planning using necessary simulators has been followed here.
LTE-Advanced is the new Global standard which is expected to create a foundation for the future wireless broadband services. The standard incorporates all the latest technologies recently developed in the field of wireless communications. Presented in a modular style, the book provides an introductory description for beginners as well as practical guidelines for telecom specialists. It contains an introductory module that is suitable for the initial studies of the technology based on the 3GPPRelease 10, 11 and beyond of LTE and SAE. The latter part of the book is suitable for experienced professionals who will benefit from the practical descriptions of the physical core and radio network planning, end-to-end performance measurements, physical network construction and optimization of the system. The focus of the book is in the functioning, planning, construction, measurements and optimization of the radio and core networks of the Release 10 and beyond of the 3GPP LTE and SAE standards. It looks at the practical description of the Advanced version of the LTE/SAE, how to de-mystify the LTE-Advanced functionality and planning, and how to carry out practical measurements of the system. In general, the book describes «how-to-do-it» for the 4G system which is compliant with the ITU-R requirements.
3G NETWORK INITIAL PILOT COVERAGE DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION Rapid growth of mobile Internet and other mobile services has resulted in increasing demand for higher data transmission capacity. 3G mobile communications systems is designed to meet this demand. Coverage planning is performed with ASSET3G network planning tool including a digital map with topography and population distribution information of the area. The task of planning a network can be very challenging as it involves many careful studies with a lot of considerations. This book provides A methodology of developing initial pilot coverage for a 3G network. The target for coverage planning is to find an optimal location for NodeB's (3G base stations) to build continuous coverage according to the planning requirements. In addition, various optimization techniques such as the antenna height and tilts were also studied to optimize the performance of the network parameters to achieve good coverage. After deployments the total displayed area was 57.446km2 and the total covered area was 57.428km2 with coverage percentage of 99.96%. This book is a perfect guide for students in telecommunication and network coverage planners.
Recently, the world has experienced a massive a transformation into being a global digital village, and In this view, the online social networks have emerged as a big player in this transformation. There is a great educational potentials in social networks if effectively used for that purpose, and the communities especially in developing world have not utilized fully except for socialization. Henceforth, this book is all about the integration of the social networks such as Facebook,Blogs, Twitter and others into education.
If you’re starting a new business or planning your business’s future, there are plenty of things you should take into account. Strategic Planning For Dummies covers everything you need to know to develop a plan for building and maintaining a competitive advantage – no matter what business you’re in. Written by Erica Olsen, founder and President of a business development firm that helps entrepreneurial-minded businesses plan for a successful future, this handy guide covers all the basics, including: How a strategic plan is different than a business plan Establishing a step-based planning process Planning for and encouraging growth Taking a long-view of your organization Evaluating past performance Defining and refining your mission, values, and vision Sizing up your current situation Examining your industry landscape Setting your strategic priorities Planning for unknown contingencies If you’re in business, you have to plan for everything – especially if you intend your business to grow. Whether you’re planning for a small business, large conglomerate, nonprofit, or even a government agency, this book has the planning specifics you need for your organization. Step-by-step, you’ll learn how to lay the foundations for a plan, understand how your plan will affect your business, form planning teams, discover what your strengths are, see where you are, and, finally, plan where you’re going. And there’s much more: Learn to analyze business trends that will determine your business’s future Set measurable, realistic goals that you can plan for and achieve Make strategic planning a habitual part of the organization Prioritize multiple strategies that you can implement simultaneously Set a defining vision for the organization that guides all your planning and strategy This friendly, simple guide puts the power of strategic planning in the palm of your hand. For small businesses that can’t afford to hire strategic planning consultants, it’s even more imperative. Careful, constant planning is the only way to handle an uncertain business future. With this book, you’ll have all the step-by-step guidance you need to ensure you’re ready for anything that comes.