Network recovery is critical capability that service providers must provide. It can be accomplished in four ways. Span, or local, protection is the most common recovery method. Another common method is path restoration which is accomplished end-to-end. Some service providers apply both span protection and path restoration in different parts of their networks in a “hybrid” configuration. Another more recent alternative is a feature in Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) called “Fast Reroute.” This praxis addresses several fundamental problems related to each of the above network recovery options in large service provider networks. First, the effects of the numbers of links, demand unit sizes, and link size modularity have on the four recovery methods, individually and collectively, are examined. Next, the selection of the minimum cost recovery method given the presence and levels of the other options is determined. Finally, the cost differences of the recovery methods given any combination of the other options and their levels are presented.
Sensor Network is potentially powerful tool for analysis of surface properties in much larger areas and also areas which are inaccessible because of its unique capability of deployment & autonomous data gathering in unfriendly and unattended environment. Also optimization of sensing circuits in terms of mass, power and size will eventually increase the efficiency of sensor network. An attempt has been made to design a sensor network for measurement of temperature for surface analysis and this book will help beginners to understand about sensor networks and power optimization.
Cyras Mathematical Models For The Analysis And ?optimization? Of Elasto–plastic System
The secondary Oil recovery process is related with the Hele-Shaw immiscible displacement. A middle-layer (M.L.) is considered between the displacing fluid (water) and oil, containing a polymer solute, where the viscosity is an unknown parameter. We minimize the Saffman-Taylor instability, searching for the optimal viscosity in M.L. which gives a minimal growth constant of perturbations. We solve this optimization problem by using the methods of functional and numerical analysis for the Sturm-Liouville problems which govern the flow stability in such three-layer Hele-Shaw cells.The obtained formulas for the optimal viscosities are giving an almost neutral stability and are in accord with previous experimental and numerical results. We study the variable permeability and diffusion effects. We compute the necessary polymer amount and M.L. length for a given minimization of the fingering phenomenon. Some surfactant effects on rising gas-bubbles in capillary tubes are also studied.
ABAQUS Finite Element Analysis software is used to apply computational design optimization process on cable stayed bridge models in relation with shape and topology of the structure. Three styles of stay cables arrangements and three types of pylons are created for structural optimization. The aim is to identify the most efficient design models with a robust, serviceable, safe and stiffness against oscillation and failure due to self weight and external loads
This work comprise two distinguish arguments, both important in RF engineering. The first one exploits the Method of Moments in Time Domain (MoM-TD). Such method can be implemented, as for frequency domain, either resorting to a thin wire approximation or to a surface patch model. For heterogeneous structures both implementations might be needed, and the problem of the attachment between a perfectly conducting thin wire and a perfectly conducting surface is hence relevant. In this work attachment modes are introduced in MoM-TD and a uniform formulation of the method itself is presented for the three models (WGM, SPM and ATT). The second part of this work exploits the optimization techniques in antenna design. In this contribution an improvement on existing multi-objective algorithm is performed and more precisely on the Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II). The modified algorithm is applied to the design of Horn antennas for discrete lens applications to achieve a Pareto-optimal solution. Horn design is aimed not only towards higher possible efficiency but also towards large band and compactness.
Recent advances in cellular technology have great effect on wireless communication networks (WCNs). Performance and Quality of Service (QoS) are the key design requirements for WCNs. Performance is one of the fundamental factors in the design, development and configuration of wireless communication networks, which makes its effect realised in every walk of life. Queueing theory has been employed for the analysis and performance prediction of WCNs exhaustively. Performance modeling and analysis of WCNs is important in two ways. First, given a traffic management of the expected load on the network, the analyst can determine the traffic rates and buffer capacities needed in the network. Second, users can characterize expected traffic when making resource reservations for network services. This book presents traffic management models for wireless communication network via queue theoretic approach. The problems that are considered include performance evaluation of WCNs, optimal channel allocation in cellular networks, analysis of the behavior of calls in wireless local loops, optimal file allocation in video-on-demand systems, etc.
Advanced technologies have provided detailed spatiotemporal information about a variety of environmental variables and natural processes. Environmental model developers tend to make use of all available data and rigorously model all the detailed processes. Such practice may lead to highly complex models that demand large computational budgets to simulate the system. For example, a hydrologic or groundwater model representing a detailed conceptualization with a fine discretization level may demand hours (or even days) for a single run. Such computationally intensive models may be required to iteratively run many times (e.g., thousands of times) for various analyses including optimization, automatic calibration, design space exploration, sensitivity analysis, and uncertainty analysis, imposing prohibitively large computational burdens. This book is focused on the state-of-the-art concepts and methodologies for circumventing such computational challenges. Different approaches such as model pre-emption, surrogate modelling (metamodelling), and model reduction are discussed. Applications, benefits and drawbacks of different methods are demonstrated through multiple case studies.
Low Salinity Waterflooding (LSW) is an emerging attractive enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method because of its oil recovery performance and relatively simple, environmentally friendly implementation, when compared with conventional waterflooding and EOR approaches. This book offers a fundamental and practical knowledge of the LSW process and its potential for improved oil recovery. Areas covered include state-of-the-art LSW development, underlying theoretical and mechanistic modeling approach, laboratory studies and field-scale applications. In addition, this book introduces the merits of combining LSW with chemical and miscible gas flooding to promote the synergy of the mechanism underlying these methods which further enhances oil recovery and overcomes the technical challenges frequently encountered in the conventional EOR methods. This book also provides various practical aspects of the process design and optimization to reduce the risks associated with geological uncertainties and delivers maximum profit and economic feasibility of an LSW project.
Traditionally, networking has had little or no basis in analysis or architectural development, with designers relying on technologies they are most familiar with or being influenced by vendors or consultants. However, the landscape of networking has changed so that network services have now become one of the most important factors to the success of many third generation networks. It has become an important feature of the designer?s job to define the problems that exist in his network, choose and analyze several optimization parameters during the analysis process, and then prioritize and evaluate these parameters in the architecture and design of the system.Network Analysis, Architecture, and Design, 3e, uses a systems methodology approach to teaching these concepts, which views the network (and the environment it impacts) as part of the larger system, looking at interactions and dependencies between the network and its users, applications, and devices. This approach matches the new business climate where customers drive the development of new services and the book discusses how networks can be architected and designed to provide many different types of services to customers. With a number of examples, analogies, instructor tips, and exercises, this book works through the processes of analysis, architecture, and design step by step, giving designers a solid resource for making good design decisions.With examples, guidelines, and general principles McCabe illuminates how a network begins as a concept, is built with addressing protocol, routing, and management, and harmonizes with the interconnected technology around it. Other topics covered in the book are learning to recognize problems in initial design, analyzing optimization parameters, and then prioritizing these parameters and incorporating them into the architecture and design of the system. This is an essential book for any professional that will be designing or working with a network on a routine basis.*Substantially updated design content includes ad hoc networks, GMPLS, IPv6, and mobile networking*Written by an expert in the field that has designed several large-scale networks for government agencies, universities, and corporations*Incorporates real-life ideas and experiences of many expert designers along with case studies and end-of-chapter exercises
Nonnegative systems play an important role in various fields such as (bio)chemistry, economy, population dynamics or even in transportation modeling where the state variables of the models are often physically constrained to be nonnegative. The aim of this book is to summarize and present computation based analysis results for certain classes of nonnegative models that are primarily applied in the description of biochemical processes, and are given in the form of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Majority of the developed analysis methods are put into an optimization framework, and they include the stability analysis and control of quasi-polynomial systems, and the computation of preferred reaction network structures from kinetic system models.
This Publication Contains the Analysis of Prediction of the Future highways Cost and Construction Duration based on the Artificial Neural Network Regression analysis. More than 1500 construction projects data was retrieved and more than 400 projects data was classified as the most important data for this analysis. The most effective factors were also identified by this regression analysis. As a result of this analysis, the outcome was more optimistic than our prediction.
Optimization of square-on-square double layer grids is beneficial for design purpose. For this purpose, use of a gradient based optimization algorithm incorporating stochastic feature called static perturbation stochastic approximation (SPSA) has been investigated in this book. Also, a computational procedure for constrained optimization of square-on-square double layer grids combining FEM, SPSA algorithm and neural network has been formulated. This research study shows that the proposed methodology of combining FEM and SPSA algorithm is effective for the purpose of generation of reliable data to train GR and RBF neural network models for use as a practical tool for the prediction of optimal design and maximum deflection of square-on-square double layer grids. This book is especially useful to researchers in the field of optimization of space structures and neural networks and, also, the designers of double layer grids. It is beneficial for postgraduate students majoring in structural engineering.
The new direction of development of the automotive vehicle ride comfort and driving smoothness is associated with the advancement of the machine parts design, e.g., torsional dampers on friction clutch are considered as essential parts to maintain engine torque peaks as well as operational irregularities and reduce them in a way that is consistent with the comfort and robustness purposes. In this book, a numerical technique is used to model proposed designs of disc drive for friction clutch. The shape and material optimizations of the proposed models were carried out to improve the dynamic characteristics of the system and hence the absorption of shocks that occur during clutch engagement. In this work, the attention is paid to the numerical solution using finite element method to estimate the stresses and deformations for steady-state of the proposed models and hence investigation of the vibration characteristics of disc drives for clutch.