A comprehensive review of the most current scientific research on ABC transporters and multidrug resistance ATP-binding cassette transporter genes (ABC transporters) are known to play a crucial role in the development of multidrug resistance (MDR). MDR is the ability of pathologic cells, such as tumors, to withstand chemicals designed to target and destroy such cells. In MDR, patients who are on medication eventually develop resistance to not only the drug they are taking, but to several different types of drugs. ABC Transporters and Multidrug Resistance offers an essential resource for pharmaceutical researchers who are working to discover drugs to counteract multidrug resistance in diseases such as cancer. In one comprehensive volume, this book contains a collection of the most current knowledge on the involvement of ABC transporters in drug transport and resistance. This comprehensive volume provides an overview on the description of the structure, the genome, normal tissue expression, physiological aspect, and mechanism of action of the ABC protein. The expert contributors explore the expression, detection, and implications of ABC proteins in hematological malignancies and solid tumors and ABC proteins and pathogenic microorganisms. This volume also explains MDR modulation through inhibition of ABC transporters and the design of inhibitors and mechanism of action. In addition, the book offers essential information on the biological and clinical aspect of multidrug resistance.
Antimicrobial resistance is arguably the greatest threat to worldwide human health. This book evaluates the roles of human water use, treatment and conservation in the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Designed as a companion volume to Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment (Wiley-Blackwell, 2012), this book is a multi-disciplinary synthesis of topics related to antimicrobial resistance and wastewater treatment processes. Antimicrobial Resistance in Wastewater Treatment Processes assembles detailed discussions written by many of the world's best-known experts in microbiology, civil engineering, chemistry, environmental science, public health and related fields. The book presents a collection of subjects that includes: Current knowledge of the role of the environment in development and spread of antimicrobial resistance Chemical analysis of antibiotics in environmental samples Molecular methods for analysis of antimicrobial resistance genes Advanced wastewater treatment processes and antimicrobial resistance effects Public perception of risk related to health consequences of antimicrobial resistance Public health implications of antimicrobial resistance with focus on wastewater treatment processes Antimicrobial resistance has gained a foothold in the global consciousness as a serious public health threat. There is a much greater appreciation for the role of the environment in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance and the effects of pollutants that can potentially promote development of resistance in bacteria. Contaminants released from wastewater treatment plants are a concern. In Antimicrobial Resistance in Wastewater Treatment Processes, readers will be guided through examinations of the current science related to this important health issue.
Examines effects of the environmental distribution of antimicrobial resistance genes on human health and the ecosystem Resistance genes are everywhere in nature—in pathogens, commensals, and environmental microorganisms. This contributed work shows how the environment plays a pivotal role in the development of antimicrobial resistance traits in bacteria and the distribution of resistant microbial species, resistant genetic material, and antibiotic compounds. Readers will discover the impact of the distribution in the environment of antimicrobial resistance genes and antibiotics on both the ecosystem and human and animal health. Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment is divided into four parts: Part I, Sources, including ecological and clinical consequences of antibiotic resistance by environmental microbes Part II, Fate, including strategies to assess and minimize the biological risk of antibiotic resistance in the environment Part III, Antimicrobial Substances and Resistance, including antibiotics in the aquatic environment Part IV, Effects and Risks, including the effect of antimicrobials used for non-human purposes on human health Recognizing the intricate links among overlapping complex systems, this book examines antimicrobial resistance using a comprehensive ecosystem approach. Moreover, the book's multidisciplinary framework applies principles of microbiology, environmental toxicology, and chemistry to assess the human and ecological risks associated with exposure to antibiotics or antibiotic resistance genes that are environmental contaminants. Each chapter has been written by one or more leading researchers in such fields as microbiology, environmental science, ecology, and toxicology. Comprehensive reference lists at the end of all chapters serve as a gateway to the primary research in the field. Presenting and analyzing the latest findings in a field of growing importance to human and environmental health, this text offers readers new insights into the role of the environment in antimicrobial resistance development, the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant genetic elements, and the transport of antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotics.
'An urgent and extraordinary book. Weaving a philosophical analysis of Heidegger, Agamben and Foucault, Jan draws out the implications of their thought for a radical analysis of the ontological politics of Islam and Pakistan. Whether writing about the 'Ulama and Deoband schools, blasphemy laws, the military, beards, or the Bamiyan Buddhas, Jan provokes and challenges our thinking while unearthing the ground on which Pakistan—and our world—are built.' —Joel Wainwright, Department of Geography, Ohio State University, USA 'In this exceptionally inventive and important book, Jan shows us that the problems besetting political life in Pakistan are part of a more troubling crisis in modern forms of power. Challenging accounts that cordon off «political Islam» from «the West,» Jan discloses their fundamental indistinction and thus, through his practice of critical ontology, reorients our understanding of how power and violence are at work in the world.' —Joshua Barkan, Department of Geography, University of Georgia, USA The Metacolonial State presents a novel rethinking of the relationship between Islam and the Political. Key to the text is an original argument regarding the «biopoliticization of Islam» and the imperative need for understanding sovereign power and the state of exception in resolutely ontological terms. Through the formulation of a critical ontology of political violence, The Metacolonial State endeavors to shed new light on the signatures of power undergirding postcolonial life, while situating Pakistan as a paradigmatic site for reflection on the nature of modernity's precarious present. The cross-disciplinary approach of Dr. Jan's work is certain to have broad appeal among geographers, historians, anthropologists, postcolonial theorists, and political scientists, among others. At the same time, his explication of critical ontology – with its radical reading of the interlacement of history, power and the event – promises to add a bold new dimension to social science research on Islamism and biopolitics.
Scrutinizing various fillers, such as fly ash, inorganic nanoparticles, Kevlar and wood flour, this book exemplifies how the choice of filler influences the micro- and macroscopic behavior of the resulting polymer composites, such as friction, wear and impact resistance. In so doing, the text brings together a number of composite systems using different polymer matrices, different filler systems as well as different processing conditions, thereby serving as a beneficial guide for readers so as to select a particular set of processing conditions or composite constituents for the enhancement of certain properties.
A Companion to South Asia in the Past provides the definitive overview of research and knowledge about South Asia’s past, from the Pleistocene to the historic era in India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Nepal, provided by a truly global team of experts. The most comprehensive and detailed scholarly treatment of South Asian archaeology and biological anthropology, providing ground-breaking new ideas and future challenges Provides an in-depth and broad view of the current state of knowledge about South Asia’s past, from the Pleistocene to the historic era in India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Nepal A comprehensive treatment of research in a crucial region for human evolution and biocultural adaptation A global team of scholars together present a varied set of perspectives on South Asian pre- and proto-history
Полный вариант заголовка: «Panopticon : or the inspection-house : containing the idea of a new principle of construction applicable to any sort of establishment, in which persons of any description are to be kept under inspection and in particular to penitentiary-houses, prisons, houses of industry, work-houses, poor-houses, manufactories, mad-houses, lazarettos, hospitals, and schools : with a plan of management adapted to the principle : in a series of letters, written in the year 1787, from Crecheff in White Russia, to a friend in England / by Jeremy Bentham».
This book, which is the translated version of a Swedish book, combines a general introduction of a variety of antibiotics with a more in-depth discussion of resistance. The focus on resistance in learning about antibiotics will help future scientists recognize the problem antibiotics resistance poses for medicinal and drug-related fields, and perhaps trigger more research and discoveries to fight antibiotic resistant strains. Current overviews of the topic are included, along with specific discussions on the individual mechanisms (betalactams, glycopeptides, aminoglycosides, etc) used in various antibacterial agents and explanations of how resistances to those develop. Methods for counteracting resistance development in bacteria are discussed as well.
This book presents an up to date view of iron biogeochemistry in the ocean. It encompasses the description of iron speciation, the analytical methods used to measure the different iron forms in seawater and the different iron biogeochemical models.
The history of Islam in South Asia is as diverse as the millions of individuals across India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Bangladesh who consider themselves Muslim. There nonetheless are significant and controversial debates over the nature of Islam’s expansion in South Asia - whether Hindu communities were forced into conversion, whether it was a peaceful process of intermarriage, whether it was the desire for freedom from the Hindu caste system, or the influence of Sufi missionaries.This book highlights the development of Islam and poses many questions about the correct interpretation of the Islamic Religion.
Полный вариант заголовка: «Elementary principles of carpentry : A treatise on the pressure and equilibrum of beams and timber frames : the resistance of timber : and the construction of floors, roofs, centres, bridges, etc. : with practical rules and examples : to which is added, an essay on the nature and properties of timber, including the methods of seasoning, and causes and prevention of decay, with descriptions of the kinds of wood used in bulding : also, numerous tables of the scantlings of timber for different purposes, the specific oravities of materials, etc. : illustrated by 23 engravings / By Thomas Tredgold».
To quantify antioxidants in natural sources, the application of chromatography techniques with different detectors followed by skillful sample preparation is necessary. Analysis of Antioxidant-Rich Phytochemicals is the first book that specifically covers and summarizes the details of sample preparation procedures and methods developed to identify and quantify various types of natural antioxidants in foods. Focusing on the principle of quantification methods for natural antioxidants, the book reviews and summarizes current methods used in the determination of antioxidant-rich phytochemicals in different sources. Chapter by chapter, the distinguished team of authors describes the various methods used for analysis of the different antioxidant-rich phytochemicals – phenolic acids; carotenoids; anthocyanins; ellagitannins, flavonols and flavones; catechins and procyanidins; flavanones; stilbenes; phytosterols; and tocopherols and tocotrienols. Going beyond extensive reviews of the scientific literature, the expert contributors call on their accumulated experience in sample extraction and analysis to outline procedures, identify potential problems in dealing with different samples, and offer trouble-shooting tips for the analysis. Analysis of Antioxidant-Rich Phytochemicals covers the important food applications and health-promoting functions of the major antioxidant phytochemicals, presents general analysis principles and procedures, and systematically reviews and summarizes the various analytical methods necessary for each type of natural antioxidant in different food sources.