Examines effects of the environmental distribution of antimicrobial resistance genes on human health and the ecosystem Resistance genes are everywhere in nature—in pathogens, commensals, and environmental microorganisms. This contributed work shows how the environment plays a pivotal role in the development of antimicrobial resistance traits in bacteria and the distribution of resistant microbial species, resistant genetic material, and antibiotic compounds. Readers will discover the impact of the distribution in the environment of antimicrobial resistance genes and antibiotics on both the ecosystem and human and animal health. Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment is divided into four parts: Part I, Sources, including ecological and clinical consequences of antibiotic resistance by environmental microbes Part II, Fate, including strategies to assess and minimize the biological risk of antibiotic resistance in the environment Part III, Antimicrobial Substances and Resistance, including antibiotics in the aquatic environment Part IV, Effects and Risks, including the effect of antimicrobials used for non-human purposes on human health Recognizing the intricate links among overlapping complex systems, this book examines antimicrobial resistance using a comprehensive ecosystem approach. Moreover, the book's multidisciplinary framework applies principles of microbiology, environmental toxicology, and chemistry to assess the human and ecological risks associated with exposure to antibiotics or antibiotic resistance genes that are environmental contaminants. Each chapter has been written by one or more leading researchers in such fields as microbiology, environmental science, ecology, and toxicology. Comprehensive reference lists at the end of all chapters serve as a gateway to the primary research in the field. Presenting and analyzing the latest findings in a field of growing importance to human and environmental health, this text offers readers new insights into the role of the environment in antimicrobial resistance development, the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant genetic elements, and the transport of antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotics.
Scrutinizing various fillers, such as fly ash, inorganic nanoparticles, Kevlar and wood flour, this book exemplifies how the choice of filler influences the micro- and macroscopic behavior of the resulting polymer composites, such as friction, wear and impact resistance. In so doing, the text brings together a number of composite systems using different polymer matrices, different filler systems as well as different processing conditions, thereby serving as a beneficial guide for readers so as to select a particular set of processing conditions or composite constituents for the enhancement of certain properties.
Полный вариант заголовка: «Panopticon : or the inspection-house : containing the idea of a new principle of construction applicable to any sort of establishment, in which persons of any description are to be kept under inspection and in particular to penitentiary-houses, prisons, houses of industry, work-houses, poor-houses, manufactories, mad-houses, lazarettos, hospitals, and schools : with a plan of management adapted to the principle : in a series of letters, written in the year 1787, from Crecheff in White Russia, to a friend in England / by Jeremy Bentham».
This book, which is the translated version of a Swedish book, combines a general introduction of a variety of antibiotics with a more in-depth discussion of resistance. The focus on resistance in learning about antibiotics will help future scientists recognize the problem antibiotics resistance poses for medicinal and drug-related fields, and perhaps trigger more research and discoveries to fight antibiotic resistant strains. Current overviews of the topic are included, along with specific discussions on the individual mechanisms (betalactams, glycopeptides, aminoglycosides, etc) used in various antibacterial agents and explanations of how resistances to those develop. Methods for counteracting resistance development in bacteria are discussed as well.
To quantify antioxidants in natural sources, the application of chromatography techniques with different detectors followed by skillful sample preparation is necessary. Analysis of Antioxidant-Rich Phytochemicals is the first book that specifically covers and summarizes the details of sample preparation procedures and methods developed to identify and quantify various types of natural antioxidants in foods. Focusing on the principle of quantification methods for natural antioxidants, the book reviews and summarizes current methods used in the determination of antioxidant-rich phytochemicals in different sources. Chapter by chapter, the distinguished team of authors describes the various methods used for analysis of the different antioxidant-rich phytochemicals – phenolic acids; carotenoids; anthocyanins; ellagitannins, flavonols and flavones; catechins and procyanidins; flavanones; stilbenes; phytosterols; and tocopherols and tocotrienols. Going beyond extensive reviews of the scientific literature, the expert contributors call on their accumulated experience in sample extraction and analysis to outline procedures, identify potential problems in dealing with different samples, and offer trouble-shooting tips for the analysis. Analysis of Antioxidant-Rich Phytochemicals covers the important food applications and health-promoting functions of the major antioxidant phytochemicals, presents general analysis principles and procedures, and systematically reviews and summarizes the various analytical methods necessary for each type of natural antioxidant in different food sources.
Полный вариант заголовка: «Elementary principles of carpentry : A treatise on the pressure and equilibrum of beams and timber frames : the resistance of timber : and the construction of floors, roofs, centres, bridges, etc. : with practical rules and examples : to which is added, an essay on the nature and properties of timber, including the methods of seasoning, and causes and prevention of decay, with descriptions of the kinds of wood used in bulding : also, numerous tables of the scantlings of timber for different purposes, the specific oravities of materials, etc. : illustrated by 23 engravings / By Thomas Tredgold».
How many different clothes can you see in the street? Think about all the different clothes you wear in just one day, in just one week. And the different clothes for different times of the year! Harry did a project about clothes for his teacher. He knows a lot about clothes now. How about you?
This book describes the different principles and equipments used in medical imaging. Importance of medical imaging for diagnostic is strongly increasing and it is now necessary to have a good knowledge of the different physical possible principles. Researchers, clinicians, engineers and professionals in this area, along with postgraduate students in the signal and image processing field, will find this book of great interest.
Donkeys are extremely valuable animals in Pakistan because they are increasingly used in transportation of goods, cultivation of lands and are one of the cheapest sources of labour. Donkeys are extremely important as their use is much more in transportation and labour as compared to horses. Donkeys have a major socio-economic importance in many areas. Despite the advancement in mechanization, donkeys are still the “beasts of burden”. Under smallholder farming system, donkeys are the most precious, suitable and economical animals, because they can be used in areas with coarse topography and underdeveloped roads. Strongylosis is one of the most important diseases of equines. Diarrhoea, anorexia, weight loss and marked anaemia are the clinical signs in infected animals resulting in huge mortality. The mixed strongyle infections are common in donkeys with clinical signs including anaemia, diarrhea and unthriftness.
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum is the name of an atlas published by Abraham Ortelius in Antwerp in 1570, bundling together the knowledge accumulated during the age of discovery and representing the world as a theatre, which in those days didn t refer just to a stage. It is in the same spirit, that is the assembly and comparison of different and at first sight contrasting experiences, that the featured artists have been chosen to represent the Russian Federation at the 2017 Venice Biennale. Grisha Bruskin, Recycle Group, Sasha Pirogova, and Dmitri Kourliandski belong to different generations, have different backgrounds, and take different approaches to art. But together they reflect a picture of Russian contemporary art made up of myriad facets and details.
Book DescriptionInnovation in the Pharmaceutical Industry traces the discovery and development of drugs in Japan and the UK both historically and sociologically. It includes sixteen case studies of major pharmaceutical developments in the twentieth century, encompassing, among others, beta-blockers, beta-stimulants, inhaled steroids and histamine H2-antagonists. The book illustrates that the four stages of drug development - namely compound, application, organizational authorization and market - are interactively shaped by heterogeneous actors and institutions. The book also identifies three different types of pharmaceutical development - paradigmatic innovation, application innovation and modification-based innovation, all with distinguishable features in the drug development process. Finally, several historical, structural and cultural factors influencing the shaping of medicines are revealed by the comparison between British and Japanese drug innovation. Addressing a number of practical implications for the promotion of the pharmaceutical industry, this book will be of enormous interest to students, researchers and academics specializing in science and technology, and the management of technology and innovation. Practitioners, managers, and policy planners within the pharmaceutical industry will also deem this book invaluable.
It has long been known that the folk tale is the soul of people. Since ancient times, the Russian Empire was formed as a multi-ethnic country. The Russian language and Russian culture are the fruit of the interaction of different cultures and peoples living in the vast territory. That is why this book presents folk tales of Native peoples inhabiting Russia in different years. Each tale, presented in this book, reflects some features, typical for people of a particular nation.