Governance of Marine Fisheries and Biodiversity Conservation explores governance of the world’s oceans with a focus on the impacts of two inter-connected but historically separate streams of governance: one for fisheries, the other for biodiversity conservation. Chapters, most co-authored by leading experts from both streams, investigate the interaction of these governance streams from ecological, economic, social and legal perspectives, with emphasis on policies, institutions processes, and outcomes on scales from the global to the local community, and with coverage of a range of themes and regions of the world. The book opens with chapters setting the historical context for the two marine governance streams, and framing the book’s exploration of whether, as the streams increasingly interact, there will be merger or collision, convergence or co-evolution. The concluding chapter synthesizes the insights from throughout the book, relative to the questions posed in the opening chapters. It also draws conclusions about future needs and directions in the governance of marine fisheries and biodiversity, vital to the future of the world’s oceans. With cutting edge chapters written by many leading international experts in fisheries management and biodiversity conservation, and edited by three leading figures in this crucially important subject, Governance of Marine Fisheries and Biodiversity Conservation is an essential purchase for fisheries scientists, economists, resource managers and policymakers, and all those working in fields of biodiversity conservation, marine ecology, and coastal livelihoods. Libraries in all universities and research establishments where environmental and/or marine studies, conservation, ocean policy and law, biological and life sciences, and fisheries management are studied and taught, should have copies of this most important book.
As the impacts of anthropogenic activities increase in both magnitude and extent, biodiversity is coming under increasing pressure. Scientists and policy makers are frequently hampered by a lack of information on biological systems, particularly information relating to long-term trends. Such information is crucial to developing an understanding as to how biodiversity may respond to global environmental change. Knowledge gaps make it very difficult to develop effective policies and legislation to reduce and reverse biodiversity loss. This book explores the gap between global commitments to biodiversity conservation, and local action to track biodiversity change and implement conservation action. High profile international political commitments to improve biodiversity conservation, such as the targets set by the Convention on Biological Diversity, require innovative and rapid responses from both science and policy. This multi-disciplinary perspective highlights barriers to conservation and offers novel solutions to evaluating trends in biodiversity at multiple scales.
Biodiversity conservation and poverty alleviation are both important societal goals demanding increasing international attention. While they may seem to be unrelated, the international policy frameworks that guide action to address them make an explicit assumption that conserving biodiversity will help to tackle global poverty. Part of the Conservation Science and Practice Series published with the Zoological Society of London, this book explores the validity of that assumption. The book addresses a number of critical questions: Which aspects of biodiversity are of value to the poor? Does the relationship between biodiversity and poverty differ according to particular ecological conditions? How do different conservation interventions vary in their poverty impacts? How do distributional and institutional issues affect the poverty impacts of interventions? How do broader issues such as climate change and the global economic system affect the biodiversity – poverty relationship at different scales? This volume will be of interest to policy-makers, practitioners and researchers concerned with understanding the potential – and limitations – of integrated approaches to biodiversity conservation and poverty alleviation.
Following the much acclaimed success of the first volume of Key Topics in Conservation Biology, this entirely new second volume addresses an innovative array of key topics in contemporary conservation biology. Written by an internationally renowned team of authors, Key Topics in Conservation Biology 2 adds to the still topical foundations laid in the first volume (published in 2007) by exploring a further 25 cutting-edge issues in modern biodiversity conservation, including controversial subjects such as setting conservation priorities, balancing the focus on species and ecosystems, and financial mechanisms to value biodiversity and pay for its conservation. Other chapters, setting the framework for conservation, address the sociology and philosophy of peoples’ relation with Nature and its impact on health, and such challenging practical issues as wildlife trade and conflict between people and carnivores. As a new development, this second volume of Key Topics includes chapters on major ecosystems, such as forests, islands and both fresh and marine waters, along with case studies of the conservation of major taxa: plants, butterflies, birds and mammals. A further selection of topics consider how to safeguard the future through monitoring, reserve planning, corridors and connectivity, together with approaches to reintroduction and re-wilding, along with managing wildlife disease. A final chapter, by the editors, synthesises thinking on the relationship between biodiversity conservation and human development. Each topic is explored by a team of top international experts, assembled to bring their own cross-cutting knowledge to a penetrating synthesis of the issues from both theoretical and practical perspectives. The interdisciplinary nature of biodiversity conservation is reflected throughout the book. Each essay examines the fundamental principles of the topic, the methodologies involved and, crucially, the human dimension. In this way, Key Topics in Conservation Biology 2, like its sister volume, Key Topics in Conservation Biology, embraces issues from cutting-edge ecological science to policy, environmental economics, governance, ethics, and the practical issues of implementation. Key Topics in Conservation Biology 2 will, like its sister volume, be a valuable resource in universities and colleges, government departments, and conservation agencies. It is aimed particularly at senior undergraduate and graduate students in conservation biology and wildlife management and wider ecological and environmental subjects, and those taking Masters degrees in any field relevant to conservation and the environment. Conservation practitioners, policy-makers, and the wider general public eager to understand more about important environmental issues will also find this book invaluable.
Historically, the conservation of forests and wildlife has focused on the creation of national parks and reserves. However, only 9% of protected areas are larger than 14,000 hectares, likely making them too small to conserve ecosystem services and prevent loss of wide-ranging keystone species such as elephant and leopard. New approaches are needed that extend conservation beyond protected area boundaries into areas where economic considerations prevail. The book describes one such emerging model of conservation: the integration of the private sector into partnerships to protect biodiversity and improve forest management. While such partnerships are being created in nearly every sector of resource extraction, detailed analyses of how such partnerships work and whether they benefit biodiversity conservation are rare. Using a case study from the Congo Basin, the book examines principles of conservation and partnership, and provides technical and methodological details to replicate an innovative conservation model. It presents concrete solutions for expanding conservation across multi-use landscapes, a necessary action as industry expands to all the corners of the globe.
Food webs have now been addressed in empirical and theoretical research for more than 50 years. Yet, even elementary foundational issues are still hotly debated. One difficulty is that a multitude of processes need to be taken into account to understand the patterns found empirically in the structure of food webs and communities. Food Webs and Biodiversity develops a fresh, comprehensive perspective on food webs. Mechanistic explanations for several known macroecological patterns are derived from a few fundamental concepts, which are quantitatively linked to field-observables. An argument is developed that food webs will often be the key to understanding patterns of biodiversity at community level. Key Features: Predicts generic characteristics of ecological communities in invasion-extirpation equilibrium. Generalizes the theory of competition to food webs with arbitrary topologies. Presents a new, testable quantitative theory for the mechanisms determining species richness in food webs, and other new results. Written by an internationally respected expert in the field. With global warming and other pressures on ecosystems rising, understanding and protecting biodiversity is a cause of international concern. This highly topical book will be of interest to a wide ranging audience, including not only graduate students and practitioners in community and conservation ecology but also the complex-systems research community as well as mathematicians and physicists interested in the theory of networks. «This is a comprehensive work outlining a large array of very novel and potentially game-changing ideas in food web ecology.» —Ken Haste Andersen, Technical University of Denmark «I believe that this will be a landmark book in community ecology … it presents a well-established and consistent mathematical theory of food-webs. It is testable in many ways and the author finds remarkable agreements between predictions and reality.» —Géza Meszéna, Eötvös University, Budapest
Part of the Zoological Society of London's Conservation Science and Practice Series, Applied Population and Community Ecology evaluates theory in population and community ecology using a case study of feral pigs, birds and plants in the high country of south-eastern Australia. In sequence, the book reviews the relevant theory and uses long-term research over a quarter of a century on the population ecology of feral pigs and then community ecology of birds and plants, to evaluate the theory. The book brings together into one volume, research results of many observational, experimental and modelling studies and directly compares them with those from related studies around the world. The implications of the results for future wildlife management are also discussed. Intended readers are ecologists, graduate students in ecology and wildlife management and conservation and pest managers.
Biodiversity offers great potential for managing insect pests. It provides resistance genes and anti-insect compounds; a huge range of predatory and parasitic natural enemies of pests; and community ecology-level effects operating at the local and landscape scales to check pest build-up. This book brings together world leaders in theoretical, methodological and applied aspects to provide a comprehensive treatment of this fast-moving field. Chapter authors from Europe, Asia, Africa, Australasia and the Americas ensure a truly international scope. Topics range from scientific principles, innovative research methods, ecological economics and effective communication to farmers, as well as case studies of successful use of biodiversity-based pest management some of which extend over millions of hectares or are enshrined as government policy. Written to be accessible to advanced undergraduates whilst also stimulating the seasoned researcher, this work will help unlock the power of biodiversity to deliver sustainable insect pest management. Visit www.wiley.com/go/gurr/biodiversity to access the artwork from the book.
An authoritative and comprehensive guide to managing energy conservation in infrastructures Energy Conservation in Residential, Commercial, and Industrial Facilities offers an essential guide to the business models and engineering design frameworks for the implementation of energy conservation in infrastructures. The presented models of both physical and technological systems can be applied to a wide range of structures such as homes, hotels, public facilities, industrial facilities, transportation, and water/energy supply systems. The authors—noted experts in the field—explore the key performance indicators that are used to evaluate energy conservation strategies and the energy supply scenarios as part of the design and operation of energy systems in infrastructures. The text is based on a systems approach that demonstrates the effective management of building energy knowledge and supports the simulation, evaluation, and optimization of several building energy conservation scenarios. In addition, the authors explore new methods of developing energy semantic network (ESN) superstructures, energy conservation optimization techniques, and risk-based life cycle assessments. This important text: Defines the most effective ways to model the infrastructure of physical and technological systems Includes information on the most widely used techniques in the validation and calibration of building energy simulation Offers a discussion of the sources, quantification, and reduction of uncertainty Presents a number of efficient energy conservation strategies in infrastructure systems, including HVAC, lighting, appliances, transportation, and industrial facilities Describes illustrative case studies to demonstrate the proposed energy conservation framework, practices, methods, engineering designs, control, and technologies Written for students studying energy conservation as well as engineers designing the next generation of buildings, Energy Conservation in Residential, Commercial, and Industrial Facilities offers a wide-ranging guide to the effective management of energy conservation in infrastructures.
People are inseparable from natural ecosystems, and understanding how people think about, experience, and interact with nature is crucial for promoting environmental sustainability as well as human well-being. This is the new edition of what is now the leading textbook in conservation psychology, the field that explores connections between the study of human behavior and the achievement of conservation goals. Completely updated, this book summarizes theory and research on ways in which humans experience nature; it explores people’s conceptions of nature and environmental problems, their relationship with nature, and their moral lenses on nature; and examines ways to encourage conservation-oriented behavior at both individual and societal levels. Throughout, the authors integrate a wide body of research demonstrating the role of psychology in promoting a more sustainable relationship between humans and nature. New sections cover human perceptions of environmental problems, new examples of community-based conservation, and a “positive psychology” perspective that emphasizes the relevance of nature to human resilience. Additional references are to be found throughout this edition along with some new examples and a reorganisation of chapters in response to reader feedback. This fascinating volume is used for teaching classes to senior undergraduate and graduate students of Conservation Psychology, Environmental Psychology and Conservation Science in departments of Psychology, Geography, Environmental Science, and Ecology and Evolution. It is equally suitable as a starting point for other researchers and practitioners – psychologists, conservation biologists, environmental scientists, and policy-makers – needing to know more about how psychological research can inform their conservation work.
A multidisciplinary approach to problem-solving in community-based organizations using decision models and operations research applications A comprehensive treatment of public-sector operations research and management science, Decision Science for Housing and Community Development: Localized and Evidence-Based Responses to Distressed Housing and Blighted Communities addresses critical problems in urban housing and community development through a diverse set of decision models and applications. The book represents a bridge between theory and practice and is a source of collaboration between decision and data scientists and planners, advocates, and community practitioners. The book is motivated by the needs of community-based organizations to respond to neighborhood economic and social distress, represented by foreclosed, abandoned, and blighted housing, through community organizing, service provision, and local development. The book emphasizes analytic approaches that increase the ability of local practitioners to act quickly, thoughtfully, and effectively. By doing so, practitioners can design and implement responses that reflect stakeholder values associated with healthy and sustainable communities; that benefit from increased organizational capacity for evidence-based responses; and that result in solutions that represent improvements over the status quo according to multiple social outcome measures. Featuring quantitative and qualitative analytic methods as well as prescriptive and exploratory decision modeling, the book also includes: Discussions of the principles of decision theory and descriptive analysis to describe ways to identify and quantify values and objectives for community development Mathematical programming applications for real-world problem solving in foreclosed housing acquisition and redevelopment Applications of case studies and community-engaged research principles to analytics and decision modeling Decision Science for Housing and Community Development: Localized and Evidence-Based Responses to Distressed Housing and Blighted Communities is an ideal textbook for upper-undergraduate and graduate-level courses in decision models and applications; humanitarian logistics; nonprofit operations management; urban operations research; public economics; performance management; urban studies; public policy; urban and regional planning; and systems design and optimization. The book is also an excellent reference for academics, researchers, and practitioners in operations research, management science, operations management, systems engineering, policy analysis, city planning, and data analytics.
How to Succeed on Primary Care and Community Placements offers practical advice on how to get the most from your time on community visits, within patient consultations, and with the practice team. It highlights the unique opportunities and challenges you will face on placement, from using clinical information systems, to home visits and long term patient relationships, and how to take advantage of new ways of learning with web-based tools, mobile devices and social networking. Key features include: • Learning outcomes at the start of each chapter with links to web-based learning, case examples, and tasks to undertake whilst on placement • An evidence-based, practical approach to improving learning, teaching, assessment and feedback in community settings Written by a team of experienced community-based medical education specialists, it is ideal for all medical students, whether on early clinical placements or later in training, and for tutors and preceptors looking for novel ways to engage their students.
This thoroughly revised and updated second edition of Methods for Community-Based Participatory Research for Health provides a step-by-step approach to the application of participatory approaches to quantitative and qualitative data collection and data analysis. With contributions from a distinguished panel of experts, this important volume shows how researchers, practitioners, and community partners can work together to establish and maintain equitable partnerships using a Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) approach to increase knowledge and improve the health and well-being of the communities involved. Written for students, practitioners, researchers, and community members, the book provides a comprehensive presentation of innovative partnership structures and processes, and covers the broad spectrum of methods needed to conduct CBPR in the widest range of research areas—including social determinants of health, health inequities, health promotion, community interventions, disease management, health services, and environmental health. The contributors examine effective methods used within the context of a CBPR approach including survey questionnaire, in-depth interview, focus group interview, ethnography, exposure assessment, and geographic information system mapping. In addition, each chapter describes a case study of the application of the method using a CBPR approach. The book also contains examples of concrete tools and measurement instruments that may be adapted by others involved in CBPR efforts.
Advances in research and development reveal the immense diversity and potential of marine genetic resources. Under international law, no specific regime applies to these complex and paradoxical objects of use. The Law of the Sea Convention sets a framework that is partly inadequate for this new category of resources. The Biodiversity Convention and the Nagoya Protocol only address the genetic resources of national areas. Patents allow their holder to exercise a monopoly on exploiting biotechnological creations to extensive claims, questioning the common nature of biodiversity and related knowledge. They hinder research and the objectives of biodiversity law. The legal and practical rules of physical and functional access vary in geometry. They focus on the valorization of research results, crystallizing conflicts of interest between suppliers and users. Sustainable research and development is essential to the knowledge and protection of marine biodiversity. The qualification of marine genetic resources in common, standard contractual tools, distributed research and development infrastructures, negotiation of an agreement on sustainable use and conservation of biodiversity beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, would To remove these inconsistencies.