HIV is a prominent problem in many developing countries. It has been believed and recognized as the most serious health, social, political and economic crisis of human history. Particularly, the pandemic has severely affected sub-Saharan Africa and hindered the progress of the region in various ways. In Ethiopia, nearly 85% of the population lives in rural areas where the prevalence rate of HIV infection is increasing. An attempt to reduce the HIV prevalence rate in such groups needs to consider the socio-cultural context of the community. Various justifications have been offered by the community for the observance of socio- cultural practices. Some of them justified the practice with their own religious views, while others accepted it as a cultural norm and value. However, some socio-cultural practices are considered as potential factors for the transmission of HIV. If one of the practitioners is inevitably infected with the virus, the other would also be infected. Moreover, poverty, seasonal migration, and gender inequality are also mentioned as the most important factors for the transmission of the virus.
Hatay is located on the historical cross roads that have linked three continents to each other, and it has always been the focus of beliefs and cultures. Hatay has performed the function of a bridge between the Middle East and Turkey. Ethnic origins of some of the societies in Hatay share common features with those of the cities in the vicinity. Many monasteries, churches and synagogues that reflect the Christian and Jewish cultural heritage and number of Turkish-Islamic works of arts are among the factors that attract attention towards Hatay. Hence, it can be said that the field of research is a vitally important place in cultural tourism of Turkey. There are cultural heritages of different beliefs that pave the way for the development of the belief tourism potential. Ethnic and folkloric values are among the leading elements when we analyze the cultural tourism potential. Furthermore, traditional houses, food and drinks of different cultures, language, multiculturalism, special occasions and ceremonies, different ethnic groups in many places such as Antakya, Samandag etc. are the factors that converts Hatay into a cultural landscape.
This book attempts to understand the Muslim and non-Muslim differentials. Particular emphasis has been placed on areas such as status of living conditions, households, education, employment and fertility, and the influence of religion on them. Actually this book examines the status of two different cultural groups in their socio-cultural context to understand the true dynamics of the behaviour from the point of view of religious differentials. The significance of the study lies in the fact that it enables us to understand the local needs and demands. District and block is the most suitable unit of the study for planning purpose as the availability of data and most of the assessments and implementative decisions which are to be taken by administrative authorities. It is evident from the review of literature that there is a dearth of research oriented literature on Muslim’s marginalization. Hence, in such a situation, need of the hour is to plan and do some systematic and comprehensive study. This will help to generate empirical data related to the socio-economic problems of Muslims of the state and country in general and in the district of Malda in particular.
Since its independence in 1956, Morocco has embarked on a process of social, economic and political development in an attempt to build a modern nation. However, this has resulted in profound mutations in the Moroccan culture in general and the Amazigh one in particular. From an ethnographic perspective, the book seeks to provide an account of the impact of modernization on the Amazigh cultural heritage in Morocco. More specifically, the study is concerned with the investigation of the gradual loss of the Amazigh culture among Ayt Merghad, with a special focus on the rituals of marriage. An attempt is also made to uncover the forces that have reshaped these practices and transformed them into their current state. The researcher argues that a vision of development that excludes the cultural dimension cannot do justice to the local cultures. Today, many voices, including UNESCO, the World Summit on Sustainable Development and researchers are calling for the inclusion of the cultural component in the development models. Therefore, for a process of development to be sustainable, it stands to reason that the policy makers should give more importance to the promotion of cultural diversity
Family socio-economic status affects children’s education. It has been noted that the girl child is performing poorly in Kisumu East District when compared to the boy child in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education Examinations. For instance in 2008, in Nyanza Province only 5 girls compared to 25 boys were ranked among the top 100 nationally. Among the 5 girls there was only one girl from Kisumu East District. In 2009, only 6 girls compared to 26 boys were ranked among the top 100 position nationally from Nyanza Province; and there was no girl while there were 4 boys from Kisumu East District. Therefore the purpose of this study was to find out the influence of family socio-economic status on academic achievement of secondary school girls in Kisumu East District. The objectives of the study were to: examine the influence of parental level of Education; find out the influence of family income; establish the influence of family size and birth order and find out the influence of cultural factors on girl student academic achievement. The theory used was Pearson’s gender relations theory (Pearson, 1995). The research designs used were correlation and descriptive survey designs. The s
Nowadays natural and cultural heritages are increasingly deteriorated and threatened with natural and man made factors. However, because of insufficient financial, technological and scientific resources, protection of such natural and cultural heritages at regional and national level is impossible. Thus, to protect the unique and irreplaceable heritages of the earth, cooperative and international effort is a solution. This book is therefore, discussed impacts of listing heritage sites as UNESCO world heritage sites which is mainly focused on the following issues: opportunities of UNESCO world heritage status to create awareness and to promote world heritage sites, to increase visitor numbers, to increase technical and financial assistance, to built the Capacity of the Site Management and to increase benefits of Heritage Sites and threats of UNESCO world heritage status: because of the increasing number of tourists and threats because of interventions. Hence, the analysis should help the all tourism stakeholders to identify opportunities and threats of listing heritage sites as UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Traditional cities are increasingly caught up in a process of rapid change that is characteristic of our globalizing world. Change is doing away with valued traditions embedded in built fabrics and in social and cultural practices. The specter of the loss of heritage in the traditional cities along with embedded sustainability lessons makes it necessary for us to exert effort to study and understand them. This is particularly necessary for cities in the African Continent where weak institutional structures of governance have contributed to limited interest in heritage preservation. This study examined one of these cities, Zaria, using a cross disciplinary approach with views from different perspectives, including physical, social, historical, cultural and symbolic. The cross disciplinary approach of the study makes the book a good target for historians, social geographers, scholars and practitioners of African studies, ethnographers, urban designers, heritage conservationist and architects. The book is also recommended for people with general interest in traditional societies.
Heritage assets have become one of the major bases of tourism in emerging economies. To promote such assets, there have been attempts to identify, develop, catalogue and conserve them. The inventory of heritage assets in Cape Coast, Ghana identified seventy four (74) heritage assets and these assets range from open spaces, homes, educational centres, durbar grounds and other historic relics. Mostly built or developed before 1920, the assets were classified according to ownership and the characteristics of the heritage assets. While some of them are still intact, others are in a state of disrepair, and others have disappeared. Attempt should be made to restore the area of it heritage assets. Restoration needs to consider the economic and non-economic value that may affect the development and protection of the assets for posterity and to enrich tourism products at the destination
The Nazi war on European culture produced the greatest dislocation of art, archives, and libraries in the history of the world. In the ruins of the Reich, Allied occupiers found millions of paintings, books, manuscripts, and pieces of sculpture, from the mediocre to the priceless, hidden in thousands of secret hideaways. This book tells the story of how the American Military Government in Germany, spearheaded by a few dozen dedicated Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives (MFA&A) officers and enlisted men, coped with restoring Europe's cultural heritage.
Birbhum district is very much enlightened for his physical and cultural properties. In this district, lateritic soil made different topography which is known as “khoai region”. Another important topography is river based flood plain. In western part of this district, basaltic topography is found. The heterogeneity of the landscape, the complexity of the components of the system, the change in the behaviour of populations living in such an environment and the pressure of the habitat resource constraints have a strong effect on organisms in that landscape. This landscape is shaped, maintained and/ or changed by disturbance. As a result human interference over land is also increased. Then bio-diversity became threatened, afforestation and land degradation taken place, socio-economic status changed etc. Land degradation’ means reduction or loss of the biological or economic productivity and complexity cropland, resulting from land uses or from a process arising from human activities and habitation patterns. Land degradation has greater impact on food security, rural livelihood and environmental regulatory capability as noted in many India’s district like Birbhum.
The aim of this book is to present a historical account on the entry of Christian Missionaries into Sundargarh district of India and their activities in the district. This book reveals that the education is a tool for the growth and development of Christianity in the district. Again this book speaks how the missionaries able to construct ideas on Christianity in the minds of people through imparting education by establishing and managing educational institutions. This book would be great value for the scholars, teachers and peoples of Sundargarh district in particular and World in general.
This study investigated the socio-economic and cultural factors that affect the food security of children under five years in Boro Usigu Divisions of Siaya District in Western Kenya. Food insecurity is a common problem in the area and children under five are the most vulnerable group that are affected by the problem. Children always need adequate nutritious food for body maintenance and growth.
The district of Karbi Anglong bounds several ethnic groups. Karbis occupy the predominant position.Other tribes residing in the district are Dimasa, Kacharis, Garos, Khasis, Jaintias, Rengma Nagas, Man-tias, Tiwas, Chakmas and Hindi speaking people. The composite Culture of the plural society is facing a severe threat as group rivalry and inter tribe conflict culminating into wild communal frenzy is leading to widespread discontentment, mutual suspicion, and hatred. Cultural revivalism is manifesting itself in demand for political autonomy, protection of linguistic identity and preferential treatment in employment. An unethical policy of national integration together with the unresolved nationality question, and the number oriented decision making system of the polity has paved the way for the emergence of a number of armed groups competing with each other for territorial hegemony over the scarce resources.
This book gives a unique analysis and interpretation of Caribbean culture that readers and scholars of cultural studies and geography in particular should find especially useful. The deeper meanings and manifestations of culture are explored through application of methods from new social theory. A central theme throughout the book is the central theme is that culture is pervasive, adaptable and a limiting dynamic that exists in plurality and accent within any context of place. Concepts of Caribbean culture and identity in social science and the humanities are critically appraised. Particularly, cultural perception and meaning of the Caribbean landscapes are examined as significant elements of culture that have been largely ignored in such work.