A thoroughly updated new edition of the essential reference on the design, practice, and analysis of clinical trials Clinical Trials Dictionary: Terminology and Usage Recommendations, Second Edition presents clear, precise, meticulously detailed entries on all aspects of modern-day clinical trials. Written and compiled by one of the world’s leading clinical trialists, this comprehensive volume incorporates areas of medicine, statistics, epidemiology, computer science, and bioethics—providing a treasure trove of key terms and ideas. This new edition continues to supply readers with the A–Z terminology needed to design, conduct, and analyze trials, introducing a vocabulary for the characterization and description of related features and activities. More than 300 new entries are now included, reflecting the current usage practices and conventions in the field, along with usage notes with recommendations on when to use the term in question. Detailed biographical notes highlight prominent historical figures and institutions in the field, and an extensive bibliography has been updated to provide readers with additional resources for further study. The most up-to-date work of its kind, Clinical Trials Dictionary, Second Edition is an essential reference for anyone who needs to report on, index, analyze, or assess the scientific strength and validity of clinical trials.
A systematic approach to all aspects of designing and conducting clinical trials The success or failure of clinical trials hinges on hundreds of details that need to be developed, often under less than ideal conditions. Written by one of the world's leading trialists, Clinical Trials Handbook: Design and Conduct provides clinicians with a complete guide to designing, conducting, and evaluating clinical trials—teaching them how to simplify the process and avoid costly mistakes. The author draws on his extensive clinical trials experience to outline all steps employed in setting up and running clinical trials, from budgeting and fundraising to publishing the results. Along the way, practical advice is offered while also addressing a mix of logistical, ethical, psychological, behavioral, and administrative issues inherent to clinical trials. Topics of coverage include: Protocols for drug masking, controls, and treatment randomization Consent, enrollment, eligibility, and follow-up procedures Different types of sample size design and data collection and processing Working with study centers, research staff, and various committees Monitoring treatment effects and performance, and ensuring quality control Data analysis and access policies for study data and documents Clinical Trials Handbook is invaluable for practicing clinicians and trialists who would like to learn more about or improve their understanding of the design and execution of clinical trials. The book is also an excellent supplement for courses on clinical trials at the graduate level.
Using examples and case studies from industry, academia and research literature, Randomized Clinical Trials provides a detailed overview of the key issues involved in designing, conducting, analysing and reporting randomized clinical trials. It examines the methodology for conducting Phase III clinical trials, developing the protocols, the practice for capturing, measuring, and analysing the resulting clinical data and their subsequent reporting. Randomized clinical trials are the principal method for determining the relative efficacy and safety of alternative treatments, interventions or medical devices. They are conducted by groups comprising one or more of pharmaceutical and allied health-care organisations, academic institutions, and charity supported research groups. In many cases such trials provide the key evidence necessary for the regulatory approval of a new product for future patient use. Randomized Clinical Trials provides comprehensive coverage of such trials, ranging from elementary to advanced level. Written by authors with considerable experience of clinical trials, Randomized Clinical Trials is an authoritative guide for clinicians, nurses, data managers and medical statisticians involved in clinical trials research and for health care professionals directly involved in patient care in a clinical trial context.
Provides an introduction to the various statistical techniques involved in medical research and drug development with a focus on estimating the success probability of an experiment Success Probability Estimation with Applications to Clinical Trials details the use of success probability estimation in both the planning and analyzing of clinical trials and in widely used statistical tests. Devoted to both statisticians and non-statisticians who are involved in clinical trials, Part I of the book presents new concepts related to success probability estimation and their usefulness in clinical trials, and each section begins with a non-technical explanation of the presented concepts. Part II delves deeper into the techniques for success probability estimation and features applications to both reproducibility probability estimation and conservative sample size estimation. Success Probability Estimation with Applications to Clinical Trials: • Addresses the theoretical and practical aspects of the topic and introduces new and promising techniques in the statistical and pharmaceutical industries Features practical solutions for problems that are often encountered in clinical trials Includes success probability estimation for widely used statistical tests, such as parametric and nonparametric models Focuses on experimental planning, specifically the sample size of clinical trials using phase II results and data for planning phase III trials Introduces statistical concepts related to success probability estimation and their usefulness in clinical trials Success Probability Estimation with Applications to Clinical Trials is an ideal reference for statisticians and biostatisticians in the pharmaceutical industry as well as researchers and practitioners in medical centers who are actively involved in health policy, clinical research, and the design and evaluation of clinical trials.
Praise for the Second Edition: “…a grand feast for biostatisticians. It stands ready to satisfy the appetite of any pharmaceutical scientist with a respectable statistical appetite.” —Journal of Clinical Research Best Practices The Third Edition of Design and Analysis of Clinical Trials provides complete, comprehensive, and expanded coverage of recent health treatments and interventions. Featuring a unified presentation, the book provides a well-balanced summary of current regulatory requirements and recently developed statistical methods as well as an overview of the various designs and analyses that are utilized at different stages of clinical research and development. Additional features of this Third Edition include: • New chapters on biomarker development and target clinical trials, adaptive design, trials for evaluating diagnostic devices, statistical methods for translational medicine, and traditional Chinese medicine • A balanced overview of current and emerging clinical issues as well as newly developed statistical methodologies • Practical examples of clinical trials that demonstrate everyday applicability, with illustrations and examples to explain key concepts • New sections on bridging studies and global trials, QT studies, multinational trials, comparative effectiveness trials, and the analysis of QT/QTc prolongation • A complete and balanced presentation of clinical and scientific issues, statistical concepts, and methodologies for bridging clinical and statistical disciplines • An update of each chapter that reflects changes in regulatory requirements for the drug review and approval process and recent developments in statistical design and methodology for clinical research and development Design and Analysis of Clinical Trials, Third Edition continues to be an ideal clinical research reference for academic, pharmaceutical, medical, and regulatory scientists/researchers, statisticians, and graduate-level students.
Best practices for conducting effective and safe clinical trials Clinical trials are arguably the most important steps in proving drug effectiveness and safety for public use. They require intensive planning and organization and involve a wide range of disciplines: data management, biostatistics, pharmacology, toxicology, modeling and simulation, regulatory monitoring, ethics, and particular issues for given disease areas. Clinical Trials Handbook provides a comprehensive and thorough reference on the basics and practices of clinical trials. With contributions from a range of international authors, the book takes the reader through each trial phase, technique, and issue. Chapters cover every key aspect of preparing and conducting clinical trials, including: Interdisciplinary topics that have to be coordinated for a successful clinical trialData management (and adverse event reporting systems) Biostatistics, pharmacology, and toxicology Modeling and simulation Regulatory monitoring and ethics Particular issues for given disease areas-cardiology, oncology, cognitive, dementia, dermatology, neuroscience, and more With unique information on such current issues as adverse event reporting (AER) systems, adaptive trial designs, and crossover trial designs, Clinical Trials Handbook will be a ready reference for pharmaceutical scientists, statisticians, researchers, and the many other professionals involved in drug development.
Clinical trials tasks and activities are widely diverse and require certain skill sets to both plan and execute. This book provides professionals in the field of clinical research with valuable information on the challenging issues of the design, execution, and management of clinical trials, and how to resolve these issues effectively. It discusses key obstacles such as challenges to patient recruitment, investigator and study site selection, and dealing with compliance issues. Through practical examples, professionals working with medical device clinical trials will discover the appropriate steps to take.
The book is about both theoretical and practical aspects of Project Management in clinical trials. The audience may find explanation of different phenomena in modern clinical trials, for example, why some approaches in managing trials work and others – do not. In addition to this, the book should serve the purposes of business psychotherapy. The book is saturated with examples from real life and practical tips.
Clinical trials have revolutionized the way disease is prevented, detected and treated, and early death avoided, and they continue to be an expanding area of research. They are central to the work of pharmaceutical companies, and there are many academic and public sector organizations that conduct trials on a wide variety of interventions, including drugs, devices, surgical techniques, and changes in behaviour and lifestyle. A Concise Guide to Clinical Trials provides a comprehensive yet easy-to-read overview of the design, conduct and analysis of trials. It requires no prior knowledge on the subject as the important concepts are introduced throughout. There are chapters that distinguish between the different types of trials, and an introduction to systematic reviews, health-related quality of life and health economic evaluation. The book also covers the ethical and legal requirements in setting up a clinical trial due to an increase in governance responsibilities and regulations. This practical guidebook is ideal for busy clinicians and other health professionals who do not have enough time to attend courses or search through extensive textbooks. It will help anyone involved in undertaking clinical research, or those reading about trials. The book is aimed at: Those wishing to learn about clinical trials for the first time, or as a quick reference guide, for example as part of a taught course on clinical trials Health professionals who wish to conduct their own trials, or participate in other people’s studies People who work in pharmaceutical companies, grant funding organisations, or regulatory agencies
A balanced treatment of the theories, methodologies, and design issues involved in clinical trials using statistical methods There has been enormous interest and development in Bayesian adaptive designs, especially for early phases of clinical trials. However, for phase III trials, frequentist methods still play a dominant role through controlling type I and type II errors in the hypothesis testing framework. From practical perspectives, Clinical Trial Design: Bayesian and Frequentist Adaptive Methods provides comprehensive coverage of both Bayesian and frequentist approaches to all phases of clinical trial design. Before underpinning various adaptive methods, the book establishes an overview of the fundamentals of clinical trials as well as a comparison of Bayesian and frequentist statistics. Recognizing that clinical trial design is one of the most important and useful skills in the pharmaceutical industry, this book provides detailed discussions on a variety of statistical designs, their properties, and operating characteristics for phase I, II, and III clinical trials as well as an introduction to phase IV trials. Many practical issues and challenges arising in clinical trials are addressed. Additional topics of coverage include: Risk and benefit analysis for toxicity and efficacy trade-offs Bayesian predictive probability trial monitoring Bayesian adaptive randomization Late onset toxicity and response Dose finding in drug combination trials Targeted therapy designs The author utilizes cutting-edge clinical trial designs and statistical methods that have been employed at the world's leading medical centers as well as in the pharmaceutical industry. The software used throughout the book is freely available on the book's related website, equipping readers with the necessary tools for designing clinical trials. Clinical Trial Design is an excellent book for courses on the topic at the graduate level. The book also serves as a valuable reference for statisticians and biostatisticians in the pharmaceutical industry as well as for researchers and practitioners who design, conduct, and monitor clinical trials in their everyday work.
A must-have guide for any professional in the drug manufacturing industry The Good Clinical Practice (GCP) audit is a tedious but necessary exercise that assures that all parties do their job properly and in compliance with the applicable FDA code. Clinical Trials Audit Preparation demystifies the audit process for all parties involved, including clinical research sponsors, clinical investigators, and institutional review boards. This book provides a step-by-step explanation of the FDA audit procedures for clinical trials and of how pharmaceutical companies, clinical investigators, and institutional review boards should prepare for regulatory audits. The book emphasizes the processes and procedures that should be implemented before a clinical audit occurs, making this an imperative guide to any professional in the drug manufacturing industry, including drug manufacturing companies, regulatory affairs personnel, clinical investigators, and quality assurance professionals. Among the topics discussed: Good Clinical Practices and therapeutic product development in clinical research The roles of the sponsor of a clinical investigation, the IRB, or independent ethics committee The roles and responsibilities of the clinical trial investigator The inspection preparation The Audit Report and the Form 483 Warning letters issued to clinical investigators and clinical trial sponsors and their impact on product development
Successful management of patients with treatment-resistant depression is going to require a thorough understanding of the biological basis for both the depression and its failure to respond to standard treatments. This book clearly and succinctly summarizes the latest scientific research and its applications in clinical practice. A first step is a clear definition of what constitutes treatment-resistant depression so that clinical trials and other studies are using common criteria, enabling comparison and meta-analysis of their outcomes. The opening chapter reviews definitions and predictors of originating from different fields and discusses their usefulness in clinical practice and clinical research. The next chapter proposes a new definition, adapting terminology from medicine. Biological classification requires identification of genetic risk factors: with gene variants accounting for 50% of the variance in the clinical outcomes of antidepressant treatments this is clearly a fruitful area of research. Chapter 3 describes several genes already associated with treatment-resistant depression and, while further work is needed to translate findings into clinical recommendations, predicts that genetic prediction of TRD could became a widespread clinical reality within a few years. Most patients with TRD will be treated pharmacologically and three chapters review the latest evidence for pharmacological best practice, including switching strategies for antidepressants, the role of antipsychotics and augmentation strategies to complement lithium. There are two major alternatives to pharmacotherapy: neuromodulation and psychotherapy. The brain intervention chapter summarizes clinical research and experience with electroconvulsive therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, deep brain stimulation and magnetic seizure therapy. The final chapter reviews the literature pertaining to the effectiveness of various forms of psychotherapy in patients who have not responded to antidepressant pharmacotherapy, revealing that patients who have not responded to one or two trials of antidepressant medication have a 30%-50% chance of responding to a focused psychotherapy. It proposes indications for psychotherapy in TRD and summarizes general therapeutic principles.
An essential introduction to conducting the various stages of medical device clinical trials Clinical research continues to be one of the most vital components of pharmaceutical, biostatistical, and medical studies. Design, Execution, and Management of Medical Device Clinical Trials provides a uniform methodology for conducting and managing clinical trials. Written in a style that is accessible to readers from diverse educational and professional backgrounds, this book provides an in-depth and broad overview for successfully performing clinical tasks and activities. Throughout the book, practical examples compiled from both the author's and other researchers' previous clinical trial experiences are discussed in a sequential manner as they occur in the study, starting from the development of the clinical protocol and the selection of clinical sites and ending with the completion of the final clinical study report. Next, readers are guided through the development of important clinical documents, including informed consent forms, case report forms, and study logs. A careful review of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) regulations applicable to medical devices is also featured. Additional coverage includes: Qualification and selection of investigators Study monitoring visits Definitions and reporting procedures for adverse events The use of biostatistical methodology in clinical research, including the use of biostatistics for sample size determination and study endpoints The roles and responsibilities of all members of a clinical research team The book concludes with an insightful discussion of special ethical conduct for human research and challenging issues to consider during the design of clinical studies. A glossary lists important clinical and statistical terms used in clinical research, and an extensive reference section provides additional resources for the most up-to-date literature on the topic. Design, Execution, and Management of Medical Device Clinical Trials is an excellent book for clinical research or epidemiology courses at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels. It is also an indispensable reference for clinical research associates, clinical managers, clinical scientists, biostatisticians, pharmacologists, and any professional working in the field of clinical research who would like to better understand clinical research practices.
The publication of the second edition of this manual comes at an important juncture in the history of clinical research. As advances in information technology make it possible to link individuals and groups in diverse locations in jointly seeking the answers to pressing global health problems, it is critically important to remain vigilant about moral and ethical safeguards for every patient enrolled in a trial. Those who study this manual will be well aware of how to ensure patient safety along with fiscal responsibility, trial efficiency, and research integrity. —Robert Harrington, Professor of Medicine, Director, Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, North Carolina, USA The Duke Clinical Research Institute (DCRI) is one of the world's leading academic clinical research organizations; its mission is to develop and share knowledge that improves the care of patients around the world through innovative clinical research. This concise handbook provides a practical «nuts and bolts» approach to the process of conducting clinical trials, identifying methods and techniques that can be replicated at other institutions and medical practices. Designed for investigators, research coordinators, CRO personnel, students, and others who have a desire to learn about clinical trials, this manual begins with an overview of the historical framework of clinical research, and leads the reader through a discussion of safety concerns and resulting regulations. Topics include Good Clinical Practice, informed consent, management of subject safety and data, as well as monitoring and reporting adverse events. Updated to reflect recent regulatory and clinical developments, the manual reviews the conduct of clinical trials research in an increasingly global context. This new edition has been further expanded to include: In-depth information on conducting clinical trials of medical devices and biologics The role and responsibilities of Institutional Review Boards, and Recent developments regarding subject privacy concerns and regulations. Ethical documents such as the Belmont Report and the Declaration of Helsinki are reviewed in relation to all aspects of clinical research, with a discussion of how researchers should apply the principles outlined in these important documents. This graphically appealing and eminently readable manual also provides sample forms and worksheets to facilitate data management and regulatory record retention; these can be modified and adapted for use at investigative sites.