Cost-effective strategies for designing novel drug delivery systems that target a broad range of disease conditions In vivo imaging has become an important tool for the development of new drug delivery systems, shedding new light on the pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, bioavailability, local concentration, and clearance of drug substances for the treatment of human disease, most notably cancer. Written by a team of international experts, this book examines the use of quantitative imaging techniques in designing and evaluating novel drug delivery systems and applications. Drug Delivery Applications of Noninvasive Imaging offers a full arsenal of tested and proven methods, practices and guidance, enabling readers to overcome the many challenges in creating successful new drug delivery systems. The book begins with an introduction to molecular imaging. Next, it covers: In vivo imaging techniques and quantitative analysis Imaging drugs and drug carriers at the site of action, including low-molecular weight radiopharmaceuticals, peptides and proteins, siRNA, cells, and nanoparticles Applications of imaging techniques in administration routes other than intravenous injection, such as pulmonary and oral delivery Translational research leading to clinical applications Imaging drug delivery in large animal models Clinical applications of imaging techniques to guide drug development and drug delivery Chapters are based on a thorough review of the current literature as well as the authors' firsthand experience working with imaging techniques for the development of novel drug delivery systems. Presenting state-of-the-technology applications of imaging in preclinical and clinical evaluation of drug delivery systems, Drug Delivery Applications of Noninvasive Imaging offers cost-effective strategies to pharmaceutical researchers and students for developing drug delivery systems that accurately target a broad range of disease conditions.
The opportunities and challenges of using dendrimers to improve drug delivery Among pharmaceutical and biomedical researchers, the use of dendrimers in drug delivery systems has attracted increasing interest. In particular, researchers have noted that the volume of a dendrimer increases when it has a positive charge. If this property can be applied effectively, dendrimers have enormous potential in drug delivery systems, directly supplying medication to targeted human organs. With contributions from an international team of pioneers and experts in dendrimer research, this book provides a comprehensive overview of the latest research efforts in designing and optimizing dendrimer-based drug delivery systems. The book analyzes key issues, demonstrating the critical connections that link fundamental concepts, design, synthesis, analytical methodology, and biological assessment to the practical use of dendrimers in drug delivery applications. Topics covered include: Dendrimer history Synthesis Physicochemical properties Principles of drug delivery Applications in diverse biomedical fields Dendrimer-Based Drug Delivery Systems reflects the authors' thorough review and analysis of the current literature as well as their own firsthand experience in the lab. Readers will not only discover the current state of the science, but also gain valuable insights into fruitful directions for future research. References at the end of each chapter serve as a gateway to the growing body of literature in the field, enabling readers to explore each individual topic in greater depth. Pharmaceutical and biomedical researchers will find this book a unique and essential guide to the opportunities, issues, and challenges involved in fully exploiting the potential of dendrimers to improve drug delivery.
RNA interference (RNAi) is a process in living cells whereby small double stranded RNA interferes with the expression of specific genes with complementary nucleotide sequence. Like many nucleic acid-based therapies, RNAi has great potential in treating various life-threatening diseases. However, the poor stability and cellular uptake of RNAi molecules remain considerable barriers to their efficient delivery which is paramount to a successful therapy. This book provides a comprehensive introduction to RNAi delivery, then goes on to discuss different delivery strategies, and concludes with current applications in various diseases. It covers: Mechanisms, Barriers, and Analysis of RNAi Delivery Nonclinical Safety Assessments and Clinical Pharmacokinetics: A Regulatory Perspective Bioconjugation of siRNA for Site Specifi c Delivery Nanoscale Delivery Systems for RNAi Environmentally-Responsive Delivery Systems for RNAi Light-sensitive RNAi Viral-Mediated Delivery of shRNA and miRNA RNAi applications in Cancer Therapy, Liver Diseases, Hepatitis B, and Ocular Disease miRNA as therapeutic agents and targets Advanced Delivery and Therapeutic Applications of RNAi combines the essential aspects of developing RNAi therapeutics from bench to clinic, and is invaluable for researchers working on RNAi, drug discovery and delivery, biomedical engineering, biomaterials, molecular biology, and biotechnology.
Полный вариант заголовка: «Journal of a visit to some parts of Ethiopia : with maps and other engravings / by George Waddington and the Rev. Barnard Hanbury».
This paper investigates how institutional and macroeconomic factors influence the profit efficiency frontier of Russian banks. We demonstrate that the macroeconomic environment is crucial for constructing the profit frontier. The cargo transportation index, exchange rate, and intermediation ratio have a positive relationship with this efficiency frontier while the share of loan loss provision in the loan portfolio is negatively associated with it. In addition, we find that such institutional determinants as a bank’s location, branch network diversity, and ownership type matter for constructing this frontier.
Steroid dimers are an important group of compounds produced by various marine organisms, and also synthesized in the laboratories. This group of compounds possesses various pharmacological and biological properties, and can also be used to create “molecular umbrellas” for drug delivery. Steroid Dimers: Chemistry and Applications in Drug Design and Delivery provides an up-to-date overview on the chemistry and applications of steroid dimers of natural and synthetic origins. The book includes easy-to-follow synthetic protocols for various classes of important dimeric steroids, source details, valuable spectroscopic data and depiction of unique structural features of natural steroidal dimers, and the Structure-Activity-Relationships (SARs) of some pharmacologically active dimeric steroids. Topics covered include: introduction to steroid dimers synthesis and chemistry of noncyclic and cyclic steroid dimers naturally occurring steroid dimers – cephalostatins, ritterazines and crellastatins biological and pharmacological functions of steroid dimers and their application in drug design and discovery steroid dimers as “molecular umbrellas” for drug delivery Steroid Dimers: Chemistry and Applications in Drug Design and Delivery is an essential guide to this important class of natural and synthetic compounds for researchers and students of natural products chemistry and biochemistry, synthetic organic and medicinal chemistry, and drug design, discovery and delivery.
Learn to: Solve linear algebra equations in several ways Put data in order with matrices Determine values with determinants Work with eigenvalues and eigenvectors Your hands-on guide to real-world applications of linear algebra Does linear algebra leave you feeling lost? No worries —this easy-to-follow guide explains the how and the why of solving linear algebra problems in plain English. From matrices to vector spaces to linear transformations, you'll understand the key concepts and see how they relate to everything from genetics to nutrition to spotted owl extinction. Line up the basics – discover several different approaches to organizing numbers and equations, and solve systems of equations algebraically or with matrices Relate vectors and linear transformations – link vectors and matrices with linear combinations and seek solutions of homogeneous systems Evaluate determinants – see how to perform the determinant function on different sizes of matrices and take advantage of Cramer's rule Hone your skills with vector spaces – determine the properties of vector spaces and their subspaces and see linear transformation in action Tackle eigenvalues and eigenvectors – define and solve for eigenvalues and eigenvectors and understand how they interact with specific matrices Open the book and find: Theoretical and practical ways of solving linear algebra problems Definitions of terms throughout and in the glossary New ways of looking at operations How linear algebra ties together vectors, matrices, determinants, and linear transformations Ten common mathematical representations of Greek letters Real-world applications of matrices and determinants
Enables readers to apply process dynamics and control theory to solve bioprocess and drug delivery problems The control of biological and drug delivery systems is critical to the health of millions of people worldwide. As a result, researchers in systems biology and drug delivery rely on process dynamics and control theory to build our knowledge of cell behavior and to develop more effective therapeutics, controlled release devices, and drug administration protocols to manage disease. Written by a leading expert and educator in the field, this text helps readers develop a deep understanding of process dynamics and control theory in order to analyze and solve a broad range of problems in bioprocess and drug delivery systems. For example, readers will learn how stability criteria can be used to gain new insights into the regulation of biological pathways and lung mechanics. They'll also learn how the concept of a time constant is used to capture the dynamics of diffusive processes. Readers will also master such topics as external disturbances, transfer functions, and input/output models with the support of the author's clear explanations, as well as: Detailed examples from the biological sciences and novel drug delivery technologies 160 end-of-chapter problems with step-by-step solutions Demonstrations of how computational software such as MATLAB and Mathematica solve complex drug delivery problems Control of Biological and Drug-Delivery Systems for Chemical, Biomedical, and Pharmaceutical Engineering is written primarily for undergraduate chemical and biomedical engineering students; however, it is also recommended for students and researchers in pharmaceutical engineering, process control, and systems biology. All readers will gain a new perspective on process dynamics and control theory that will enable them to develop new and better technologies and therapeutics to treat human disease.
The easy way to score high on the PANCE and PANRE Physician Assistant Exam For Dummies, Premier Edition offers test-taking strategies for passing both the Physician Assistant National Certifying Exam (PANCE) and the Physician Assistant National Recertifying Exam (PANRE). It also offers information on becoming a certified Physician Assistant (PA) and the potential positions within this in-demand career field. Physician Assistant Exam For Dummies provides you with the information you need to ace this demanding exam and begin your career in one of the fastest growing segments of healthcare. Offers an overview of test organization and scoring Content review with practice tests for each section of the exam Five full-length practice tests An interactive CD includes 3 of the 5 practice tests?including one PANRE?a digital slide slow featuring 20 plus images,and more than 300 flashcards covering the 13 official categories of the PANCE and PANRE Physician Assistant Exam For Dummies, Premier Edition serves as a valuable, must-have resource, desk reference, and study guide for those preparing for either the PANCE or the PANRE. CD-ROM/DVD and other supplementary materials are not included as part of the e-book file, but are available for download after purchase.
Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide commercially produced by the deacetylation of chitin. It is non-toxic, biodegradable, biocompatible, and acts as a bioadhesive with otherwise unstable biomolecules – making it a valuable component in the formulation of biopharmaceutical drugs. Chitosan-Based Systems for Biopharmaceuticals provides an extensive overview of the application of chitosan and its derivatives in the development and optimisation of biopharmaceuticals. The book is divided in four different parts. Part I discusses general aspects of chitosan and its derivatives, with particular emphasis on issues related to the development of biopharmaceutical chitosan-based systems. Part II deals with the use of chitosan and derivatives in the formulation and delivery of biopharmaceuticals, and focuses on the synergistic effects between chitosan and this particular subset of pharmaceuticals. Part III discusses specific applications of chitosan and its derivatives for biopharmaceutical use. Finally, Part IV presents diverse viewpoints on different issues such as regulatory, manufacturing and toxicological requirements of chitosan and its derivatives related to the development of biopharmaceutical products, as well as their patent status, and clinical application and potential. Topics covered include: chemical and technological advances in chitins and chitosans useful for the formulation of biopharmaceuticals physical properties of chitosan and derivatives in sol and gel states absorption promotion properties of chitosan and derivatives biocompatibility and biodegradation of chitosan and derivatives biological and pharmacological activity of chitosan and derivatives biological, chemical and physical compatibility of chitosan and biopharmaceuticals approaches for functional modification or crosslinking of chitosan use of chitosan and derivatives in conventional biopharmaceutical dosage forms manufacture techniques of chitosan-based microparticles and nanoparticles for biopharmaceuticals chitosan and derivatives for biopharmaceutical use: mucoadhesive properties chitosan-based systems for mucosal delivery of biopharmaceuticals chitosan-based delivery systems for mucosal vaccination chitosan-based nanoparticulates for oral delivery of biopharmaceuticals chitosan-based systems for ocular delivery of biopharmaceuticals chemical modification of chitosan for delivery of DNA and siRNA target-specific chitosan-based nanoparticle systems for nucleic acid delivery functional PEGylated chitosan systems for biopharmaceuticals stimuli-sensitive chitosan-based systems for biopharmaceuticals chitosan copolymers for biopharmaceuticals application of chitosan for anti-cancer biopharmaceutical delivery chitosan-based biopharmaceuticals scaffolds in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine wound healing properties of chitosan and its use in wound dressing biopharmaceuticals toxicological properties of chitosan and derivatives for biopharmaceutical applications regulatory status of chitosan and derivatives patentability and intellectual property issues quality control and good manufacturing practice preclinical and clinical use of chitosan and derivatives for biopharmaceuticals Chitosan-Based Systems for Biopharmaceuticals is an important compendium of fundamental concepts, practical tools and applications of chitosan-based biopharmaceuticals for researchers in academia and industry working in drug formulation and delivery, biopharmaceuticals, medicinal chemistry, pharmacy, bioengineering and new materials development.
Under the aegis of the African Energy Policy Research Network (AFREPREN) Capacity Building Theme Group, a regional study and four country studies (Zimbabwe, Mauritius, Ethiopia, and South Africa) addressed the capacity building question in the African power sector. This volume presents the findings of the studies. The studies analyze issues of manpower recruitment, training, and retention in national power utilities. They also highlight the challenges and implications of capacity building initiatives in a reforming electricity industry and propose innovative options for capacity building in the region's power sector.