I am pleased to introduce “Diagnostic aids in potentially malignant disorders and malignancies” to the student community. Early detection of potentially malignant and malignant oral lesions can reduce the mortality and increase the survival rate. A concise presentation of chair side diagnostic aids to molecular methods will be of immense help to the students pursuing graduate, postgraduate studies and also for routine stomatology practice. I am sure it will benefit all the researchers as well and the editor deserves a hearty congratulation for all the effort that went in creating this textbook.
Oral cancer is the 6th most common cancer worldwide. It is largely related to lifestyle habits. Virtually all oral squamous cell carcinomas are preceded by visible changes in the oral mucosa, termed potentially malignant disorders. Identification of such high risk potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer at a early stage through various diagnostic aids will reduce mortality and improve clinical outcomes there by improving the quality of life.This work is a comprehensive description of the diagnostic aids available for the early detection of such high risk lesions.
The scenario regarding potentially malignant disorders has recently been complicated by the increasing incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity in the younger population without any clear etiology. The changes may be at the molecular, genetic or immunologic levels. Nowadays, the importance of tumor markers is being increasingly felt for diagnostic and prognostic purposes in such conditions. SIBLING proteins play an important role in immune mechanisms and help in regulatory pathways of the body. Osteopontin induces endothelial cell migration and acts in subset of migratory pathways.It also play a important role in the process of angiogenesis. In this book, immunohistochemical role of OPN as a SIBLING protein has been studied, & its role in diagnosis and prognosis of Oral premalignancies and malignancies has been discussed.
In vivo stains are the prompt resources, which have emerged in recent years so as to aid as clinical diagnostic tools in detecting early potentially malignant and malignant lesions. Toluidine blue by its property of retaining in the increased DNA and RNA cellular activity areas, aids in delineating the suspicious areas. However, it is hazardous if swallowed, and was shown to have toxicity to fibroblasts. Methylene blue has a similar chemical structure and exhibits similar physicochemical properties to toluidine blue. It is less toxic to the human body and has recently been proposed for screening some gastrointestinal or prostate tumors. The application of this material in detecting oral lesions has so far not been addressed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and reliability of in vivo staining with methylene blue as a diagnostic adjunct in screening for oral malignant or potentially malignant lesions. The present study involved the examination of seventy five patients suspected of having oral malignant or potentially malignant lesions by methylene blue staining.
Without early detection, oral cancer is deadly. Protect your patients by applying the latest clinical interventions. Rates of new oral cancer cases continue to increase and mortality rates remain alarmingly high. Oral cancer may be preceded by clinically identifiable precancerous changes in the oral mucosa, which offer a therapeutic window of opportunity to intervene and halt disease progression to carcinoma development. Written and edited by prominent researchers in the field, Oral Precancer: Reviews current scientific research on precancer conditions of the oral cavity providing evidence-based analysis of the nature and behavior of potentially malignant and deforming oral diseases Explains the principles of prevention, diagnosis and management of potentially malignant disorders of the oral cavity Details a practical and reliable interventional treatment strategy to facilitate early diagnosis and effective treatment of both precancer and early invasive carcinoma Contains a chapter devoted to illustrative case histories, high-quality, color, clinical photos, reference sections in each chapter listing relevant review articles, and more From start to finish, Oral Precancer offers undergraduate students, clinicians, and professors an invaluable resource to minimise the morbidity and mortality of this most significant and life threatening of oral conditions.
Coagulation disorders and abnormal platelet activation are frequent findings in hematological malignancies. A hypercoagulable state is induced by malignant cells interacting directly with haemostatic system and activating the coagulation cascade. This is descriptive, prospective analytical case- control study done in Radiation & Isotopes Center Khartoum (RICK) to determine the haemostatic abnormalities and vascular damage of hematological malignancies among the major Sudanese patients.Hemostasis studies shown that, there were decreased level of fibrinogenand antithrombin III, vWf and PAI-1 were significantly elevated in ALL and in AML patients. significantly low platelet counts in AML, CLL and increased in CML and CGL ( CML ph positive) in related to control group. D-dimers was positive in 79 % of patients.platelet aggregation in response to ADP, Collagen, and Epinephrine agonists was decreased in ALL, AML and MM, and in variable in CML and NHL, and increased in CLL and HL.Markers of coagulation and platelet defect was clearly observed in hematological malignancies patients, also indication of fibrinolysis and endothelial activation were confirmed
This books presents the various diagnostic aids used in the early detection of precancerous and cancerous lesions.This book is of interest to students and clinicians from the field of Oral medicine ,oral pathology and oral surgery.A classification for the diagnostic aids has been written.This book will highlight on the various cancerous and precancerous lesions of the oral cavity.A with a discussion about the etiology,clinical features and pictorial description.The screening tests are discussed in detail.The screening tests include vital staining methods,liquid based cytology,light based detection systems and optical spectroscopy.Imaging modalities for detection of Oral cancer have been discussed.Molecular carcinogenesis and molecular markers have been elaborated in detail.The use of saliva as a diagnostic tool for Salivary biomarkers is also highlighted.This book promises its readers useful information for clinical and academic purpose.
In Pakistan, there is a pressing need for a suitable algorithm(s) that meet the demand for the expand access to HIV screening, diagnosis, treatment and care in line with the National AIDS Control Programme’s, Strategic Framework and National HIV and AIDS Policy through its multi-donor financed Social Action Programme. This book, therefore outlines the adapted diagnostic procedures for the detection of HIV, evaluates the performance and diagnostic effectiveness of three different HIV antibody assays and formulates an alternative cost-effective confirmatory approach for HIV diagnosis that is suitable for use in Pakistan. This book would be useful for HIV diagnostic laboratories, researchers and also decision makers at the National AIDS Control Programme to implement and then regularly validate the national testing strategy.
Encompassing the entire spectrum of breast imaging and diagnostics, this acclaimed text provides a systematic and pragmatic guide for all clinicians involved in diagnosing breast disease. The new third edition has been fully updated to include advances in mammography, ultrasound, breast MRI, percutaneous interventions, and emerging technologies, with pros and cons and evidence-based approaches throughout.Special features of the third edition:Coverage of the field, with comprehensive sections on examination procedures and technical requirements; histologic, clinical, and radiologic appearance of a wide range of breast pathologies; results of international screening studies; and much more Nearly 1,200 clear radiographic images showing normal findings, benign and malignant disorders, and post-traumatic, post-surgical, and post-therapeutic changes to the breast Innovations in digital mammography, tomosynthesis, and computer assisted detection (CAD); new chapters on imaging of implants, lesions of uncertain malignant potential, developing technologies; and more A systematic, highly reproducible methodology for detection, diagnosis, and assessment of findings Easy-to-follow flowcharts for the diagnostic work-up of both typical and atypical casesWritten by world-renowned authorities with decades of clinical experience, this book provides a brilliant orientation to the multimodality diagnostic approach and therapeutic significance of breast imaging findings. It is an essential reference and board review for radiologists, residents and fellows, gynecologists, oncologists, surgeons, technologists, and any other interdisciplinary specialist working to improve outcomes in breast disease.
We, the authors of this book have clinical experience of odontogenic malignancies as we were part of a Government institution of West Bengal, India. we have tried to share that knowledge with readers so that these rare tumors should get more exploration. this can help to get more knowledge on favorable treatment modalities,prognosis and survival rates.some tumors of odontogenic origin are dificult to diagnose as they mimic to other benign and malignant tumors.correct identification of these neoplasms will help to give right treatment planning so that it can reduce the morbidity and motality rates related to these tumors. In the future,gene profiles that are unique to odontogenic tissue or odontogenic tumors may also help in identification but presently the diagnosis of odontogenic malignancies is based on clinicoradiographic findings and subjective histopathologic and immunohistochemical evaluation.
Immunophenotyping in chronic B-cell neoplasms has permitted more precise characterization of the neoplastic cells, leading to the recognition of well defined disease entities. Immunological markers play a key diagnostic role by establishing clonality in B-cell disorders , thus, distinguishing between neoplastic and reactive B lymphocytosis. Immunophenotyping can be carried out either by flow cytometry done on bone marrow aspirates or by immunohistochemical methods on fixed cells spread on slides. Diagnosis of a B-cell lymphoma requires first the identification of a neoplastic B-cell population and then subclassification into an appropriate diagnostic category. The aim of this work is to evaluate the diagnostic role of bone marrow aspirates, trephine biopsies, and immunophenotyping in the assessment of bone marrow infiltration in B-chronic lymphoid disorders and to identify the diagnostic and prognostic role of immunohistochemistry in chronic B-cell neoplasms.
The oral microbiota plays a primary role in the initiation and progression of the periodontal disease. Because of the multiplicity of factors that control the establishment and long-term evolution of the oral microbiota, a great deal of heterogeneity exists in the composition of the periodontal microbiota among individual subjects. Despite these individual differences and the complex interactions between bacteria and the host and among bacteria, an association has been demonstrated between certain species and various forms of periodontal disease. A variety of microbiological diagnostic tests are available to use for evaluation of patients with periodontal disease. A key step in diagnosis of a disease is to identify the causative microorganism. Advanced diagnostic aids are increasingly playing a more vital role in this process, both in identification and treatment of periodontal disease.
Endometrial aspiration was carried out as an outpatient procedure in 100 cases presenting with various gynecological problems with Karman’s cannula followed by dilatation and curettage for histopathologic correlation Age group of the patients in the present study ranged from 20-60yrs with mean age of 45yrs. The commonest mode of presentation was menorrhagia. The adequacy of the samples for cytology was 92%. Aspiration cytology findings were compared with histopathology sections. Among 100 cases studied, proliferative phase were 50 cases, secretory phase- 25 cases, endometrial hyperplasia -7 cases, endometritis-3 cases, of which 1 case was tubercular endometritis, 2 cases of proliferative and secretory pattern and 2 cases of malignancies. The diagnostic accuracy of endometrial aspirates was 100% for malignancies, endometritis and atypical hyperplasias and 92% for secretory phase, 88% for proliferative phase and 60% for simple hyperplasia. In the present study the over all diagnostic accuracy of adequate samples was 87.7%. Aspiration cytology was more reliable in diagnosing malignant lesions than benign lesions of endometrium.
Genetic disorders are far more common than is widely appreciated. Abnormalities can range from a small mutation in a single gene to the addition or subtraction of an entire chromosome or set of chromosomes. Sound knowledge is required enabling individuals to be better informed about genetic risks and reproductive options and thus further aids in prevention of morbidity resulting from genetic diseases and alleviation of the sufferings this would pose. The aim here is to provide overall familiarity with Genetic Disorders, with focus on its types and brief description on the diagnosis, screening and treatment.