Research in insect population dynamics is important for more reasons than just protecting forest communities. Insect populations are among the main ecological units included in the analysis of stability of ecological systems. Moreover, it is convenient to test new methods of analyzing population and community stability on the insect-related data, as by now ecologists and entomologists have accumulated large amounts of such data. In this book, the authors analyze population dynamics of quite a narrow group of insects – forest defoliators. It is hoped that the methods proposed herein for the analysis of population dynamics of these species may be useful and effective for analyzing population dynamics of other animal species and their effects and role in global warming. What can insects tell us about our environment and our ever-changing climate? It is through studies like this one that these important answers can be obtained, along with data on the insects and their behaviors themselves. The authors present new theories on modeling and data accumulation, using cutting-edge processes never before published for such a wide audience. This volume presents the state-of-the-art in the science, and it is an essential piece of any entomologist’s and forest engineer’s library.
This book aims to reconcile theoretical models of population dynamics with what is currently known about the population dynamics of large mammalian herbivores. It arose from a working group established at the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis at the University of California, Santa Barbara, to address the need for models that better accommodate environmental variability, especially for herbivores dependent on changing vegetation resources. The initial chapter reviews findings from definitive long-term studies of certain other ungulate populations, many based on individually identifiable animals. Other chapters cover climatic influences, emphasising temperate versus tropical contrasts, and demographic processes underlying population dynamics, more generally. There are new assessments of irruptive population dynamics, and of the consequences of landscape heterogeneity for herbivore populations. An initial review of candidate population models is followed up by a final chapter outlining how these models might be modified to better accommodate environmental variability. The contents provide a foundation for resolving problems of diminishing large mammal populations in Africa, over-abundant ungulate populations elsewhere, and general consequences of global change for biodiversity conservation. This book will serve as a definitive outline of what is currently known about the population dynamics of large herbivores.
The study contributes in analytical description of spatial diffusion of fertility, in particular, influenced by labour movements of people between places of residence and work. It is assumed that the labour market has externality on the marriage market due to commuting, which, in turn, affects fertility. A model of spatial diffusion of fertility is based on assumption of global and local spillover effects. The global spillover effect, as shifts in fertility norms, is motivated by increasing variance of social interactions of an individual, when places of work and residence are different. One local spillover effect is in response to flows of earnings across space. Another mechanism is related to expected changes in probabilities to find a partner affected by differences in day and night population. The analytical model, in which the effects on fertility of the cited spillovers are decomposed, is constructed in the paper on the base of a model of the demand for children, spatial stock-flow model of a market, and a matching model with a sex imbalance or spatial mismatch as the probability of matching. Three sex imbalances, namely of night-, day-time population and an adjusted to sex imbalance of commuters to residents are empirically tested. Empirical evidence on municipal Swedish data for the period 1994–2008 does not provide any strong evidence of spatial diffusion of fertility. However, there are externalities of labour mobility on fertility due to changes of gender structure of population.
Brown Trout: Biology, Ecology and Management A comprehensive guide to the most current research, history, genetics and ecology of the brown trout including challenging environmental problems The brown trout is an iconic species across its natural European distribution and has been introduced throughout the World. Brown Trout offers a comprehensive review of the scientific information and current research on this major fish species. While the brown trout is the most sought species by anglers, its introduction to various waters around the world is causing serious environmental problems. At the same time, introduction of exogenous brown trout lineages threats conservation of native gene pools of populations in many regions. The authors summarize the important aspects of the brown trout’s life history and ecology and focus on the impact caused by the species. The text explores potential management strategies in order to maintain numerous damaged populations within its natural distributional range and to ameliorate its impacts in exotic environments. The authors include information on a wide-range of topics such as recent updates in population genetics, evolutionary history, reproductive traits and early ontogeny, life history plasticity in anadromous brown trout and life history of the adfluvial brown trout and much more. This vital resource: Contains the latest research on the biology and ecology of brown trout Includes information on phylogeography, genetics, population dynamics and stock management Spotlights the brown trout’s introduction to regions around the world and the serious environmental impacts Offers a comprehensive review of conservation and management techniques Written for salmonid scientists and researchers, fishery and environmental managers, and students of population genetics, ecology and population dynamics, Brown Trout explores the most recent findings on the history, ecology and sustainability of this much-researched species.
This fifth edition of the essential history of world population is updated with the most recent and significant scholarship on the topic. Reworked sections analyze the impact of environmental and climate change, discuss declining fertility in developing nations, and track the continuing impact of HIV-AIDS. Central themes updated and revised to take account of new scholarship Includes new sections on theories of migration in pre-history Expands discussion of low fertility rates in developing Asian and Latin American countries Fuller coverage of population and environmental change, including the effects of climate change Bibliographic updates include weblinks to key scientific journals
Полный вариант заголовка: «Thoughts on the effects of the British government on the State of India : accompanied with hints concerning the means of conveying civil and religious instructions to the natives of that country / by the Rev. William Tennant».
A concise introduction to structural dynamics and earthquake engineering Basic Structural Dynamics serves as a fundamental introduction to the topic of structural dynamics. Covering single and multiple-degree-of-freedom systems while providing an introduction to earthquake engineering, the book keeps the coverage succinct and on topic at a level that is appropriate for undergraduate and graduate students. Through dozens of worked examples based on actual structures, it also introduces readers to MATLAB, a powerful software for solving both simple and complex structural dynamics problems. Conceptually composed of three parts, the book begins with the basic concepts and dynamic response of single-degree-of-freedom systems to various excitations. Next, it covers the linear and nonlinear response of multiple-degree-of-freedom systems to various excitations. Finally, it deals with linear and nonlinear response of structures subjected to earthquake ground motions and structural dynamics-related code provisions for assessing seismic response of structures. Chapter coverage includes: Single-degree-of-freedom systems Free vibration response of SDOF systems Response to harmonic loading Response to impulse loads Response to arbitrary dynamic loading Multiple-degree-of-freedom systems Introduction to nonlinear response of structures Seismic response of structures If you're an undergraduate or graduate student or a practicing structural or mechanical engineer who requires some background on structural dynamics and the effects of earthquakes on structures, Basic Structural Dynamics will quickly get you up to speed on the subject without sacrificing important information.
This book contributes substantively to the current state of art of macroeconomic modeling by providing a method for modeling large collections of possibly heterogeneous agents subject to nonpairwise externality called field effects, that is, feedback of aggregate effects on individual agents or agents using state-dependent strategies. By adopting a level of microeconomic description that keeps track of compositions of fractions of agents by types or strategies, time evolution of the microeconomic states is described by (backward) Chapman-Kolmogorov equations. Macroeconomic dynamics naturally arise from these equations by expansion of the solutions in some power series of the number of participants. Specification of the microeconomic transition rates thus leads to macroeconomic dynamic models. This approach provides a consistent way for dealing with multiple equilibria of macroeconomic dynamics by ergodic decomposition and associated calculations of mean first passage times, and stationary probabilities of equilibria provide further useful information on macroeconomic behavior. This book ends with a set of elaborations, sketches of further topics of research, and a collection of supporting materials in the Appendix.
An unintimidating guide to understanding the Catholic Mass Throughout the centuries, the liturgy of the Church has taken a variety of regional and historical forms, but one thing has remained constant: the Mass has always been the central form of Catholic worship. Catholic Mass For Dummies gives you a step-by-step overview of the Catholic Mass, as well as a close look at the history and meaning of the Mass as a central form of Catholic worship. You'll find information on the order of a Mass and coverage of major Masses. Covers standard Sunday Mass, weddings, funerals, holiday services, and holy days of obligation Provides insight on the events, symbols, themes, history, and language of the Mass Translations of a Mass in Castilian and Latin American Spanish If you're a Catholic looking to enhance your knowledge of your faith, an adult studying to convert to Catholicism, a CCD instructor, or a non-Catholic who wants to understand the many nuances of the Catholic Mass, this hands-on, friendly guide has you covered.
A holistic and comprehensive account of the nature of the transition from hunting to farming in prehistory. It addresses for the first time the main bioarchaeological aspects such as changes in mobility, behaviour, diet and population dynamics. This book is of major interest to the relevant audience since it offers for the first time a global perspective on the bioarchaeology of the transition to agriculture. It includes contributions from world-class researchers, with a particular emphasis on advances in methods (e.g. ancient DNA of pathogens, stable isotope analysis, etc.). The book specifically addresses the following aspects associated with the transition to agriculture in various world regions: Changes in adult and subadult stature and subadult growth profiles Diachronic trends in the analysis of functional morphological structures (craniofacial, vault, lower limbs, etc.) and whether these are associated with change in overall sex-specific morphological variability Changes in mobility Changes in behaviour which can be reconstructed from the study of the skeletal record. These include changes in activity patterns, sexual dimorphism, evidence of inter-personal trauma, and the like. Population dynamics and microevolution by examining intra and inter population variations in dental and cranial metric traits, as well as archaeogenetic studies of ancient DNA (e.g. mtDNA markers).
During the nineteenth century, ivory hunting caused a substantial decrease of elephant numbers in southern Africa. Soon after that, populations of many other large and medium-sized herbivores went into steep decline due to the rinderpest pandemic in the 1890s. These two events provided an opportunity for woodland establishment in areas previously intensively utilized by elephants and other herbivores. The return of elephants to currently protected areas of their former range has greatly influenced vegetation locally and the resulting potential negative effects on biodiversity are causing concern among stakeholders, managers, and scientists. This book focuses on the ecological effects of the increasing elephant population in northern Botswana, presenting the importance of the elephants for the heterogeneity of the system, and showing that elephant ecology involves much wider spatiotemporal scales than was previously thought. Drawing on the results of their research, the authors discuss elephant-caused effects on vegetation in nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor savannas, and the potential competition between elephants on the one hand and browsers and mixed feeders on the other. Ultimately this text provides a comprehensive review of ecological processes in African savannas, covering long-term ecosystem changes and human-wildlife conflicts. It summarises new knowledge on the ecology of the sub-humid African savanna ecosystems to advance the general functional understanding of savanna ecosystems across moisture and nutrient gradients.
Provides a summary of current research results on the physiological and psychological effects of sound on people Covers how the operation of the hearing mechanism affects our reactions to sounds Includes research results from studies on noise sources of public concern such as transportation, public utility, and recreational sources, with emphasis on low frequency sound and infrasound Covers sounds that affect some but not others, how sounds can be controlled on a practical level, and how and what sounds are regulated Includes coverage of both positive and negative effects of sound
A discussion of the fundamental changes that occur when dynamical systems from the fields of nonlinear optics, solids, hydrodynamics and biophysics are scaled down to nanosize. The authors are leading scientists in the field and each of their contributions provides a broader introduction to the specific area of research. In so doing, they include both the experimental and theoretical point of view, focusing especially on the effects on the nonlinear dynamical behavior of scaling, stochasticity and quantum mechanics. For everybody working on the synthesis and integration of nanoscopic devices who sooner or later will have to learn how to deal with nonlinear effects.
Hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry is widely recognized for its ability to probe the structure and dynamics of proteins. The application of this technique is becoming widespread due to its versatility for providing structural information about challenging biological macromolecules such as antibodies, flexible proteins and glycoproteins. Although the technique has been around for 25 years, this is the first definitive book devoted entirely to the topic. Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry of Proteins: Fundamentals, Methods and Applications brings into one comprehensive volume the theory, instrumentation and applications of Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry (HX-MS) – a technique relevant to bioanalytical chemistry, protein science and pharmaceuticals. The book provides a solid foundation in the basics of the technique and data interpretation to inform readers of current research in the method, and provides illustrative examples of its use in bio- and pharmaceutical chemistry and biophysics In-depth chapters on the fundamental theory of hydrogen exchange, and tutorial chapters on measurement and data analysis provide the essential background for those ready to adopt HX-MS. Expert users may advance their current understanding through chapters on methods including membrane protein analysis, alternative proteases, millisecond hydrogen exchange, top-down mass spectrometry, histidine exchange and method validation. All readers can explore the diversity of HX-MS applications in areas such as ligand binding, membrane proteins, drug discovery, therapeutic protein formulation, biocomparability, and intrinsically disordered proteins.