This book aims to reconcile theoretical models of population dynamics with what is currently known about the population dynamics of large mammalian herbivores. It arose from a working group established at the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis at the University of California, Santa Barbara, to address the need for models that better accommodate environmental variability, especially for herbivores dependent on changing vegetation resources. The initial chapter reviews findings from definitive long-term studies of certain other ungulate populations, many based on individually identifiable animals. Other chapters cover climatic influences, emphasising temperate versus tropical contrasts, and demographic processes underlying population dynamics, more generally. There are new assessments of irruptive population dynamics, and of the consequences of landscape heterogeneity for herbivore populations. An initial review of candidate population models is followed up by a final chapter outlining how these models might be modified to better accommodate environmental variability. The contents provide a foundation for resolving problems of diminishing large mammal populations in Africa, over-abundant ungulate populations elsewhere, and general consequences of global change for biodiversity conservation. This book will serve as a definitive outline of what is currently known about the population dynamics of large herbivores.
The study contributes in analytical description of spatial diffusion of fertility, in particular, influenced by labour movements of people between places of residence and work. It is assumed that the labour market has externality on the marriage market due to commuting, which, in turn, affects fertility. A model of spatial diffusion of fertility is based on assumption of global and local spillover effects. The global spillover effect, as shifts in fertility norms, is motivated by increasing variance of social interactions of an individual, when places of work and residence are different. One local spillover effect is in response to flows of earnings across space. Another mechanism is related to expected changes in probabilities to find a partner affected by differences in day and night population. The analytical model, in which the effects on fertility of the cited spillovers are decomposed, is constructed in the paper on the base of a model of the demand for children, spatial stock-flow model of a market, and a matching model with a sex imbalance or spatial mismatch as the probability of matching. Three sex imbalances, namely of night-, day-time population and an adjusted to sex imbalance of commuters to residents are empirically tested. Empirical evidence on municipal Swedish data for the period 1994–2008 does not provide any strong evidence of spatial diffusion of fertility. However, there are externalities of labour mobility on fertility due to changes of gender structure of population.
This fifth edition of the essential history of world population is updated with the most recent and significant scholarship on the topic. Reworked sections analyze the impact of environmental and climate change, discuss declining fertility in developing nations, and track the continuing impact of HIV-AIDS. Central themes updated and revised to take account of new scholarship Includes new sections on theories of migration in pre-history Expands discussion of low fertility rates in developing Asian and Latin American countries Fuller coverage of population and environmental change, including the effects of climate change Bibliographic updates include weblinks to key scientific journals
Полный вариант заголовка: «Thoughts on the effects of the British government on the State of India : accompanied with hints concerning the means of conveying civil and religious instructions to the natives of that country / by the Rev. William Tennant».
A holistic and comprehensive account of the nature of the transition from hunting to farming in prehistory. It addresses for the first time the main bioarchaeological aspects such as changes in mobility, behaviour, diet and population dynamics. This book is of major interest to the relevant audience since it offers for the first time a global perspective on the bioarchaeology of the transition to agriculture. It includes contributions from world-class researchers, with a particular emphasis on advances in methods (e.g. ancient DNA of pathogens, stable isotope analysis, etc.). The book specifically addresses the following aspects associated with the transition to agriculture in various world regions: Changes in adult and subadult stature and subadult growth profiles Diachronic trends in the analysis of functional morphological structures (craniofacial, vault, lower limbs, etc.) and whether these are associated with change in overall sex-specific morphological variability Changes in mobility Changes in behaviour which can be reconstructed from the study of the skeletal record. These include changes in activity patterns, sexual dimorphism, evidence of inter-personal trauma, and the like. Population dynamics and microevolution by examining intra and inter population variations in dental and cranial metric traits, as well as archaeogenetic studies of ancient DNA (e.g. mtDNA markers).
An unintimidating guide to understanding the Catholic Mass Throughout the centuries, the liturgy of the Church has taken a variety of regional and historical forms, but one thing has remained constant: the Mass has always been the central form of Catholic worship. Catholic Mass For Dummies gives you a step-by-step overview of the Catholic Mass, as well as a close look at the history and meaning of the Mass as a central form of Catholic worship. You'll find information on the order of a Mass and coverage of major Masses. Covers standard Sunday Mass, weddings, funerals, holiday services, and holy days of obligation Provides insight on the events, symbols, themes, history, and language of the Mass Translations of a Mass in Castilian and Latin American Spanish If you're a Catholic looking to enhance your knowledge of your faith, an adult studying to convert to Catholicism, a CCD instructor, or a non-Catholic who wants to understand the many nuances of the Catholic Mass, this hands-on, friendly guide has you covered.
A comprehensive guide to the friction, contact and impact on robot control and force feedback mechanism Dynamics and Control of Robotic Manipulators with Contact and Friction offers an authoritative guide to the basic principles of robot dynamics and control with a focus on contact and friction. The authors discuss problems in interaction between human and real or virtual robot where dynamics with friction and contact are relevant. The book fills a void in the literature with a need for a text that considers the contact and friction generated in robot joints during their movements. Designed as a practical resource, the text provides the information needed for task planning in view of contact, impact and friction for the designer of a robot control system for high accuracy and long durability. The authors include a review of the most up-to-date advancements in robot dynamics and control. It contains a comprehensive resource to the effective design and fabrication of robot systems and components for engineering and scientific purposes. This important guide: Offers a comprehensive reference with systematic treatment and a unified framework Includes simulation and experiments used in dynamics and control of robot considering contact, impact and friction Discusses the most current tribology methodology used to treat the multiple–scale effects Contains valuable descriptions of experiments and software used Presents illustrative accounts on the methods employed to handle friction in the closed loop, including the principles, implementation, application scope, merits and demerits Offers a cohesive treatment that covers tribology and multi-scales, multi-physics and nonlinear stochastic dynamics control Written for graduate students of robotics, mechatronics, mechanical engineering, tracking control and practicing professionals and industrial researchers, Dynamics and Control of Robotic Manipulators with Contact and Friction offers a review to effective design and fabrication of stable and durable robot system and components.
Presents a systematic view of vibro-impact dynamics based on the nonlinear dynamics analysis Comprehensive understanding of any vibro-impact system is critically impeded by the lack of analytical tools viable for properly characterizing grazing bifurcation. The authors establish vibro-impact dynamics as a subset of the theory of discontinuous systems, thus enabling all vibro-impact systems to be explored and characterized for applications. Vibro-impact Dynamics presents an original theoretical way of analyzing the behavior of vibro-impact dynamics that can be extended to discontinuous dynamics. All topics are logically integrated to allow for vibro-impact dynamics, the central theme, to be presented. It provides a unified treatment on the topic with a sound theoretical base that is applicable to both continuous and discrete systems Vibro-impact Dynamics: Presents mapping dynamics to determine bifurcation and chaos in vibro-impact systems Offers two simple vibro-impact systems with comprehensive physical interpretation of complex motions Uses the theory for discontinuous dynamical systems on time-varying domains, to investigate the Fermi-oscillator Essential reading for graduate students, university professors, researchers and scientists in mechanical engineering.
This book gives an extensive description of the state-of-the-art in research on excited-state hydrogen bonding and hydrogen transfer in recent years. Initial chapters present both the experimental and theoretical investigations on the excited-state hydrogen bonding structures and dynamics of many organic and biological chromophores. Following this, several chapters describe the influences of the excited-state hydrogen bonding on various photophysical processes and photochemical reactions, for example: hydrogen bonding effects on fluorescence emission behaviors and photoisomerization; the role of hydrogen bonding in photosynthetic water splitting; photoinduced electron transfer and solvation dynamics in room temperature ionic liquids; and hydrogen bonding barrier crossing dynamics at bio-mimicking surfaces. Finally, the book examines experimental and theoretical studies on the nature and control of excited-state hydrogen transfer in various systems. Hydrogen Bonding and Transfer in the Excited State is an essential overview of this increasingly important field of study, surveying the entire field over 2 volumes, 40 chapters and 1200 pages. It will find a place on the bookshelves of researchers in photochemistry, photobiology, photophysics, physical chemistry and chemical physics.
Dynamics of Smart Structures is a practical, concise and integrated text that provides an introduction to the fundamental principles of a field that has evolved over the recent years into an independent and identifiable subject area. Bringing together the concepts, techniques and systems associated with the dynamics and control of smart structures, it comprehensively reviews the differing smart materials that are employed in the development of the smart structures and covers several recent developments in the field of structural dynamics. Dynamics of Smart Structures has been developed to complement the author's new interdisciplinary programme of study at Queen Mary, University of London that includes courses on emerging and new technologies such as biomimetic robotics, smart composite structures, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and their applications and prosthetic control systems. It includes chapters on smart materials and structures, transducers for smart structures, fundamentals of structural control, dynamics of continuous structures, dynamics of plates and plate-like structures, dynamics of piezoelectric media, mechanics of electro-actuated composite structures, dynamics of thermo-elastic media: shape memory alloys, and controller designs for flexible structures.
Полный вариант заголовка: «The effects of property upon society and government investigated : containing illustration of the influence of property on mental energy, national character, manners, government, and civilazation : to which is added an historical review of the monarchy and republic of Rome, upon the principles derived from the effects of property / by Charles Patton ; historical review by Robert Patton».
The text is based on a course on turbomachinery which the author has taught since year 2000 as a technical elective. Topics include; Energy Transfer in Turbomachines, Gas and Steam Turbines, and Hydraulic Turbines. New material on wind turbines, and three-dimensional effects in axial turbomachines is included. The level is kept as such that students can smoothly move from a study of the most successful books in thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, and heat transfer to the subject of turbomachinery. The chapters are organized in such a way that the more difficult material is left to the later sections of each chapter. Thus, depending on the level of the students, instructors can tailor their course by omitting some sections. Key features: Combines theory and applications to show how gas turbines, pumps and compressor function Allows for a smooth transition from the study of thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, and heat transfer to the subject of turbomachinery for students and professionals Relates turbomachinery to new areas such as wind power and three-dimensional effects in axial turbomachines Provides information on several types of turbomachinery rather than concentrating specifically on one type such as centrifugal compressors
The Contemporary Global Economy provides a lively overview of recent turbulence in the world economy, focusing on the dynamics of globalization since the 1980s. It explains the main drivers of economic change and how we are able to discern their effects in the world today. A lucid and balanced survey, based on extensive research in data and documents, accessible to the non-specialist Written by a renowned specialist in international economic relations with academic and government credentials Offers clear and engaging explanations of the main motors of economic change and how we are able to discern their effects in the world today The author assumes little knowledge of economic theory or financial markets Identifies the challenges for sustainable recovery and economic growth in the years ahead
One of the first books to provide in-depth and systematic application of finite element methods to the field of stochastic structural dynamics The parallel developments of the Finite Element Methods in the 1950’s and the engineering applications of stochastic processes in the 1940’s provided a combined numerical analysis tool for the studies of dynamics of structures and structural systems under random loadings. In the open literature, there are books on statistical dynamics of structures and books on structural dynamics with chapters dealing with random response analysis. However, a systematic treatment of stochastic structural dynamics applying the finite element methods seems to be lacking. Aimed at advanced and specialist levels, the author presents and illustrates analytical and direct integration methods for analyzing the statistics of the response of structures to stochastic loads. The analysis methods are based on structural models represented via the Finite Element Method. In addition to linear problems the text also addresses nonlinear problems and non-stationary random excitation with systems having large spatially stochastic property variations. A systematic treatment of stochastic structural dynamics applying the finite element methods Highly illustrated throughout and aimed at advanced and specialist levels, it focuses on computational aspects instead of theory Emphasizes results mainly in the time domain with limited contents in the time-frequency domain Presents and illustrates direction integration methods for analyzing the statistics of the response of linear and nonlinear structures to stochastic loads Under Author Information – one change of word to existing text: He is a Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)........