Human Herpes Virus Type 4 or Epstein Barr Virus is known to exert its oncogenic potential in altered immune states, HIV/AIDS being one of them. The HHV4 life cycle involves the continuous production of various latent and lytic proteins. In HIV infection antibodies to non HIV micro-organisms is erratic because the entire immune system is trying to combat the rapidly replicating HIV. HIV associated tumors appear in HIV clinical stage 3. Literature has not been able to demonstrate, in an HIV positive population, the association of HIV clinical staging with EBV antibodies and EBV infection clinical stages . Virologists and clinicians who are interested in the interaction of HIV and other oncogenic viruses will find this a valuable addition to their knowledge.
Telling one's HIV test result to others is a public health goal in HIV/AIDS prevention. It helps to engage in preventive behaviors and to access the necessary support for coping with serostatus or illness. It may motivate sexual partners to seek testing, change behavior and ultimately decrease transmission of HIV. Nonetheless the reality is that many HIV positive individuals do not disclose their results to their partners, families and social networks. The secrecy towards HIV results has contributed to the widespread stigmatization of HIV infection and continued spread of infection. As the global fight to HIV/AIDS progresses the importance of HIV disclosure is becoming more important. The book explored HIV positive status disclosure rate, the rezones behind non-disclosure of HIV positive results, and the outcomes of HIV status disclosure and identifies the role of gender in HIV results secrecy. Multilateral organizations, program planners’, policy makers and researchers in academic institutions are the intended beneficiaries of the book.
Human immunodeficiency virus related kidney disease is one of the leading causes of death and affects predominantly people of black descen. A cohort study was carried out at the Nylon District Hospital Douala, Cameroon to investigate the Kidney function trends amongst HIV seropositive individuals. Kidney function tests like serum urea, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, proteinuria and urine chemistry was measured amongst 329 participants amongst whom 30.4% were HIV negative and 69.6% were HIV positive. The age range of the study population was 18 to 60 years. There were 94(28.6%) males and 235 (71.5%) females. The percentage of HIV seropositivity was higher in females than in males. Although, Serum creatinine, creatinine clearance and proteinuria were significantly higher in the control group than in the HIV infected subjects, these values were not indicative of renal pathology. Considering only HIV positive individuals the mean serum creatinine was significantly higher in the Antiretoviral treatment (ART) naive group when compared to those who were already on ART. These findings indicate that renal function is not affected by the seropositivity status of individuals.
Infection with HIV has different epidemiological and clinical profile. But there is no enough information that shows patient profile throughout the country. There for to assess the epidemiological, immunological and clinical future of HIV positive patients, this follow up study was conducted in Bishoftu Hospital, Ethiopia. The data source of this study was patient medical records that have enrolled in care and treatment between Septmber 2007 and November 2009. A Total of 600 patients’ medical record was selected and reviewed using systemic sampling technique. The study found out that young individuals, females, urban dwellers, low educated and unemployed were the predominant groups enrolled for treatment. Most of the patients were showed clinical sign and symptoms during enrollment and their CD4 also low but it showed increment gradually. Therefore understanding of patient epidemiological, clinical and immunological future will help to design effective prevention and intervention strategies for HIV infection.
The HIV pandemic has continued to spread especially in sub Sahara Africa, while Multi drug resistance HIV has emerged rendering the current conventional treatment of HIV ineffective. There is a need for new treatment regime which is cheap, effective and not prone to resistance development by HIV. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) activates Nuclear Factor kappa B this stimulates Tissue Necrosis Factor (TNF) receptors, which activates the cytokine system including Apoptosis Signaling Kinase. In absence of seleno-enzyme GSHpx this process leads to apoptosis of CD4 T cells in Selenium Deficient HIV positive patients. The study looks at the effect of increased selenium intake by HIV patients. This study targets HIV clinicians, medical students, community health practitioners working with HIV/AIDS patients and Health Policy Makers.
The aim and objective of this investigation is to explore,on a preliminary basis,the psychological and social effects on a sample of women following disclosure of their positive HIV diagnosis.The study was conducted in KwaZulu-Natal,SA. A convenience sampling approach was used to collect the sample.Inclusion criteria included female, older than 18,with a positive HIV status.Participants''disclosure of a positive HIV status was a key inclusion criterion.Semi-structured interviews were used in the collection of data.The themes in the transcripts as well as from the literature review were utilized as a guide.The results of this study suggest that there are various factors that influence whether disclosure of a positive HIV diagnosis takes place,largely based on the initial adjustment to the positive HIV diagnosis,the individual''s socio-cultural context and the weighing of potential reactions (whether positive or negative) that disclosing a positive HIV diagnosis can induce.The psychological effects of disclosing a positive HIV diagnosis that were identified in this study were anger, fear of stigma/discrimination, shock and disbelief and a false sense of acceptance of the diagnosis.
The United Nations Population Fund has declared HIV/AIDS is a young people''s disease. Individuals between the ages of 15 and 24 are infected every 14 seconds. Disclosure is an important factor in HIV/AIDS prevention interventions. Disclosure of ones HIV status enables for improved access to prevention and treatment programs provides increased opportunities for risk reduction and helps in planning for the future. This book explores the rates barriers and outcomes of HIV Sero-positive status disclosure in Bahirdar town with an insight to same at the national level.Therefore, the book is vital to provide valuable information for practitioners and experts on the rates, barriers and outcomes of HIV Sero-positive status disclosure in the country in general and in Amhara National Regional State in particular.
Discontinuation of, or outright defaulting on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) by HIV-positive patients is harmful, and so is periodic unintentional non-adherence or treatment interruption. The resulting harm is especially more pronounced in sub-Saharan Africa where most individuals start HAART in advanced stages of the disease. Discontinuing patients could spread drug resistant virus to other individuals.
Sub-Saharan Africa is the hub of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, with South Africa not only an avid contributor to the epidemic in lieu of infection rates but a leader in researching the management and treatment of the virus. Bereavement is an interesting and pivotal aspect of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Unfortunately it is one that has been overlooked if not often neglected with regard to management and treatment of bereaved HIV positive individuals. People die on a daily basis from AIDS and with that comes the grieving and mourning of loved ones, family and friends. If every AIDS victim left behind four grieving individuals, with a population of 5,24 million infected people, we would have 20.96 million grieving individuals. That would be 41.93% of the South African population. In light of this, research on Bereavement and HIV/AIDS has been long overdue. Studies on Bereavement and HIV/AIDS would provide us with important information in not only designing relevant HIV interventions but also in managing the frail and preoccupied minds of those that have lost a loved one to the disease, and by so doing reducing the risk of them either transmitting the disease or becoming infected themselves
HIV Positive individuals may or may not have intention to have children. they could also have different degree of utilization and demand for family planning. The extent of this desire and how it varies by individual, social,health and demographic characteristics is not well understood. The desire of HIV infected persons to have children in the future has significant implication for transmission of HIV to sexual partners or newborns. A high proportion of HIV positive individuals who received medical care expressed a desire for children. the extent of fertility intention and family planning needs of these people has implication for vertical,heterosexual transmission and need consideration. A better and evidence based understanding of fertility intention and demand for contraception is needed to promote and protect the rights of women and men living with HIV/AIDS to make informed decisions about reproduction and to have access to appropriate sexual reproductive health services.
Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death and common presenting illness among people living with HIV. Likewise, HIV infection is more common among tuberculosis patients than among the general population. The consequence of failing to diagnose TB in person living with HIV or of not diagnosing HIV in a TB patient are severe. The aim of this study was to asses HIV/TB program &identify challenges to effective implementations. The findings revealed out 102 HIV positive patients registered in October 2008 in both facilities, 14(13.7%) of them have been screened for Tuberculosis. None of the patients has been put on IPT, whereas 74.5% of HIV positive patients were put on CPT. out of 61 illegible patients for antiretroviral therapy, 59% of them were put on this regimen. Out of 93 registered tuberculosis patients 67.7% of them were screened for HIV and 26.9% of them were found to be HIV positive. Among these 52.9% of them were put on CPT and 41.1% were put on ART. Both facilities didn’t have HIV/TB coordinator but they have trained person on HIV/TB. There was no adequate resources allocated for both facilities, no adequate room for ART, TB and data clerks.
Youth is a group of people which has been greatly affected by HIV epidemic in Malawi. They are vulnerable to HIV infection because they are at a stage where they are beginning sexual exploration. Youth therefore, need a lot of information and support on HIV preventions, and voluntary counseling and testing. They should be encouraged and assisted to disclose their HIV status whether positive or negative for them to access necessary support systems. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to explore youth’s experiences in disclosing their HIV positive status Methodology: This is an exploratory study that adopted a qualitative approach utilizing the phenomenological design to explore the experiences of HIV positive participants in disclosing their HIV positive status. The study was conducted in Likuni urban and Nambuma areas in Lilongwe district, Malawi. Ten HIV positive participants five males and five females between the ages 19-25 years were purposively sampled half from each area. A qualitative approach to data collection was done through face to face individual in-depth interviews. All the interviews were audio taped and transcribed verbatim using qualitative content analysis.
The continuing HIV/ AIDS pandemic represent one of the greatest challenges for researchers and clinicians. This book gives an overview of HIV epidemiology and virology while discussing high-risk behavior factors, HIV immunity and diagnosis. The author argues that vaccine studies usually require volunteers who are followed over a long period of time. She further shows that a high risk cohort of exposed seronegative individuals, that was studied in Nairobi - Kenya, could provide background data for planning HIV-1 Phase II and III vaccine trials. The book discusses challenges encountered in the follow-up of such a cohort in a developing country where such studies have not been done before. The author also explains that the measurement of cellular immunogenicity by interferon gamma Elispot assay in exposed seronegative individuals was not effective. Consequently, there is need to improve the assay or use it in combination with other assays. This book is recommended to students and researchers in biomedical sciences especially those interested in HIV vaccinology.
Malnutrition is one of the earliest complications of HIV infection. This cross-sectional study (involving 100 newly diagnosed HIV positive patients) was carried out to evaluate the relationship between the nutritional status and immune status of HIV positive patients, and to look into the various factors contributing to malnutrition in these patients. In the study sample, 46% of the patients were malnourished according to body mass index, 85% were malnourished according to triceps skin-fold thickness and 98% were malnourished according to mid arm muscle circumference. Tuberculosis, chronic diarrhea, candidiasis and depression were associated with malnutrition. Nutritional, anthropometric and laboratory parameters were found to have significant correlation with the immune status. Hence, nutritional assessment of HIV-infected persons can identify those at risk for adverse outcomes from nutritional deficiencies and help in planning appropriate interventions.