This book reviews the state of art in the field of chemical sensors for analyses of ionic or molecular species dissolved in liquid media, mainly in aqueous solutions. The transduction of such devices is based on chemical, biological and physical phenomena. The fundamental phenomena involved in these sensors are described in the different chapters by specialists having a good expertise in the field. Numerous recent bibliographic references are given. Most of the devices could be miniaturised using modern technologies allowing a fabrication on a large scale, for a mass production at low cost. Moreover, such devices could open the field of applications in a near future (environmental, biomedical, food industries, domotic and automotive applications etc.).
A unique and timely book on understanding and tailoring the flow of fluids in porous materials Porous media play a key role in chemical processes, gas and water purification, gas storage and the development of new multifunctional materials. Understanding hydrodynamics in porous media is decisive for enabling a wide range of applications in materials science and chemical engineering. This all-encompassing book offers a timely overview of all flow and transport processes in which chemical or physicochemical phenomena such as dissolution, phase transition, reactions, adsorption, diffusion, capillarity, and surface phenomena are essential. It brings together both theoretical and experimental results and includes important industrial applications. Physicochemical Fluid Dynamics in Porous Media: Applications in Geoscience and Petroleum Engineering explains the thermodynamics of phase equilibria for multicomponent fluids, physicochemical models of single-phase and immiscible two-phase flow, based on the macroscopic theory of oil displacement by water. It also covers the theory of two-phase flow with partial miscibility and describes partially miscible flows with phase transitions by means of the negative saturation approach. The final chapters are devoted to flow with chemical reactions, based on the example of in-situ leaching of uranium, and flow with bio-chemical reactions in terms of the underground storage of hydrogen. -Brings together the theoretical and experimental results necessary for the understanding of hydrodynamics in porous media -Covers important industrial applications such as underground leaching of uranium and underground storage of hydrogen -Presents a state-of-the-art overview and summarizes the research results usually found only scattered in the literature Physicochemical Fluid Dynamics in Porous Media: Applications in Geoscience and Petroleum Engineering will appeal to chemical engineers, materials scientists, applied physicists, and mechanical engineers.
Technological needs for chemical, ionic and biological species detection are giving rise to continuous research and development in physico-chemistry and biology. The constant progress being made in the theoretical and technological aspects concerning studies and developments of chemical sensors, biosensors and biochips is presented in this book by different scientists and professors from different universities and constitutes an updating of the state of the art for chemical sensors, biosensors and biochips. This book places a large emphasis on interaction between chemical and biological species, in a gaseous or liquid state, and details mineral and biological materials acting as sensitive elements. The role of electrical, electrochemical, piezoelectric and optical transducers in detection mechanisms are presented through their developments and from a performance point-of-view. Micro-reactors, nanotechnologies and flexible substrates, are considered in relation to their role in neural networks. Contents 1. Chemical and Biological Recognition, Nicole Jaffrezic-Renault. 2. Adsorption Phenomena, René Lalauze. 3. Microcantilever Transduction, Isabelle Dufour. 4. Piezoelectric Transduction (QCM), Hubert Perrot. 5. Metal Oxide Gas Sensors, Christophe Pijolat. 6. Molecular Material-based Conductimetric Gas Sensors, Marcel Bouvet. 7. Responses and Electrical Properties of Gas Microsensors, Khalifa Aguir. 8. Gas Microsensor Technology, Philippe Menini. 9. Multisensors: Measurements and Behavior Models, Philippe Breuil. 10. Development of Microtechnologies for the Realization of Chemical, Biochemical and/or Biological Microsensors, Pierre Temple-Boyer. 11. Development of Micro-preconcentrators for the Detection of Gaseous Species at Trace Level, Jean-Paul Viricelle. 12. Microfluidics: Manipulation of Nanovolume Samples, Louis Renaud. 13. Electrochemical Biosensors, Chantal Gondran. 14. Fiber-optic Biosensors, Neso Sojic. 15. In Vivo Analyses with Electrochemical Microsensors, Stéphane Arbault. 16. Microbial Biosensors for Environmental Applications, Gérald Thouand and Marie José Durand. 17. Biofuel Cells, Serge Cosnier.
With extensive coverage of synthesis techniques and applications, this text describes chemical biology techniques which have gained significant impetus during the last five years. It focuses on the methods for obtaining modified and native nucleic acids, and their biological applications. Topics covered include: chemical synthesis of modified RNA expansion of the genetic alphabet in nucleic acids by creating new base pairs chemical biology of DNA replication: probing DNA polymerase selectivity mechanisms with modified nucleotides nucleic-acid-templated chemistry chemical biology of peptide nucleic acids (PNA) the interactions of small molecules with DNA and RNA the architectural modules of folded RNAs genesis and biological applications of locked nucleic acid (LNA) small non-coding RNA in bacteria microRNA-guided gene silencing nucleic acids based therapies innate immune recognition of nucleic acid light-responsive nucleic acids for the spatiotemporal control of biological processes DNA methylation frameworks for programming RNA devices RNA as a catalyst: The Diels-Alderase-Ribozyme evolving an understanding of RNA function by in vitro approaches the chemical biology of aptamers: synthesis and applications nucleic acids as detection tools bacterial riboswitch discovery and analysis The Chemical Biology of Nucleic Acids is an essential compendium of the synthesis of nucleic acids and their biological applications for bioorganic chemists, chemical biologists, medicinal chemists, cell biologists, and molecular biologists.
The book that makes transport in porous media accessible to students and researchers alike Porous Media Transport Phenomena covers the general theories behind flow and transport in porous media—a solid permeated by a network of pores filled with fluid—which encompasses rocks, biological tissues, ceramics, and much more. Designed for use in graduate courses in various disciplines involving fluids in porous materials, and as a reference for practitioners in the field, the text includes exercises and practical applications while avoiding the complex math found in other books, allowing the reader to focus on the central elements of the topic. Covering general porous media applications, including the effects of temperature and particle migration, and placing an emphasis on energy resource development, the book provides an overview of mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations, and their applications in engineered and natural porous media for general applications. Offering a multidisciplinary approach to transport in porous media, material is presented in a uniform format with consistent SI units. An indispensable resource on an extremely wide and varied topic drawn from numerous engineering fields, Porous Media Transport Phenomena includes a solutions manual for all exercises found in the book, additional questions for study purposes, and PowerPoint slides that follow the order of the text.
The book aims at providing to master and PhD students the basic knowledge in fluid mechanics for chemical engineers. Applications to mixing and reaction and to mechanical separation processes are addressed. The first part of the book presents the principles of fluid mechanics used by chemical engineers, with a focus on global theorems for describing the behavior of hydraulic systems. The second part deals with turbulence and its application for stirring, mixing and chemical reaction. The third part addresses mechanical separation processes by considering the dynamics of particles in a flow and the processes of filtration, fluidization and centrifugation. The mechanics of granular media is finally discussed.
Understanding, identifying and influencing the biological systems are the primary objectives of chemical biology. From this perspective, metal complexes have always been of great assistance to chemical biologists, for example, in structural identification and purification of essential biomolecules, for visualizing cellular organelles or to inhibit specific enzymes. This inorganic side of chemical biology, which continues to receive considerable attention, is referred to as inorganic chemical biology. Inorganic Chemical Biology: Principles, Techniques and Applications provides a comprehensive overview of the current and emerging role of metal complexes in chemical biology. Throughout all of the chapters there is a strong emphasis on fundamental theoretical chemistry and experiments that have been carried out in living cells or organisms. Outlooks for the future applications of metal complexes in chemical biology are also discussed. Topics covered include: • Metal complexes as tools for structural biology • IMAC, AAS, XRF and MS as detection techniques for metals in chemical biology • Cell and organism imaging and probing DNA using metal and metal carbonyl complexes • Detection of metal ions, anions and small molecules using metal complexes • Photo-release of metal ions in living cells • Metal complexes as enzyme inhibitors and catalysts in living cells Written by a team of international experts, Inorganic Chemical Biology: Principles, Techniques and Applications is a must-have for bioinorganic, bioorganometallic and medicinal chemists as well as chemical biologists working in both academia and industry.
Molecular modeling encompasses applied theoretical approaches and computational techniques to model structures and properties of molecular compounds and materials in order to predict and / or interpret their properties. The modeling covered in this book ranges from methods for small chemical to large biological molecules and materials. With its comprehensive coverage of important research fields in molecular and materials science, this is a must-have for all organic, inorganic and biochemists as well as materials scientists interested in applied theoretical and computational chemistry. The 28 chapters, written by an international group of experienced theoretically oriented chemists, are grouped into four parts: Theory and Concepts; Applications in Homogeneous Catalysis; Applications in Pharmaceutical and Biological Chemistry; and Applications in Main Group, Organic and Organometallic Chemistry. The various chapters include concept papers, tutorials, and research reports.
A complete, up-to-date resource of information on more than 200 dyes and stains Handbook of Biological Dyes and Stains is the most comprehensive volume available on the subject, covering all the available dyes and stains known to date in the literature for use in biology and medicine. Top dye expert Dr. Ram Sabnis organizes the compounds alphabetically by the most commonly used chemical name. He presents an easy-to-use reference complete with novel ideas for breakthrough research in medical, biological, chemical, and related fields. This is the first book to give the CAS registry number, chemical structure, Chemical Abstracts index name, all other chemical names, Merck Index number, chemical/dye class, molecular formula, molecular weight, physical form, solubility, melting point, boiling point, pH range, color change at pH, pKa, absorption, and emission maxima of dyes and stains, as well as to provide access to synthesis procedures (lab scale and industrial scale) of dyes and stains. This user-friendly handbook also features references on safety, toxicity, and adverse effects of dyes and stains on humans, animals, and the environment, including: acute/chronic toxicity aquatic toxicity carcinogenicity cytotoxicity ecotoxicity genotoxicity hepatotoxicity marine toxicity mutagenicity nephrotoxicity neurotoxicity oral toxicity phototoxicity phytotoxicity The use of biological dyes and stains has extremely high potential in today's business environment. This makes Handbook of Biological Dyes and Stains a convenient, must-have reference. Its staining, biological, and industrial applications make it a vital resource for industrial and academic researchers; the book also serves as a valuable desktop reference for medical professionals, biologists, chemists, chemical/optical engineers, physicists, materials scientists, intellectual property professionals, students, and professors.
This book introduces the principles and concepts of chemical and biochemical sensors for analyzing medical as well as biological samples. For applications like analyzing or monitoring gastric juice or blood plasma, the potential of sensors is exceptionally large. Focussed on these applications, the interpretation of analytical results is explained. Specific advantages are compared to other analytical techniques. Numerous tables with data provide useful information not easily found elsewhere and make a handy source of reference. Ursula E. Spichiger-Keller is head of the Center for Chemical Sensors/Biosensors and Bioanalytical Chemistry at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich.
This book – a sequel of previous publications ‘Flows and Chemical Reactions’, ‘Chemical Reactions Flows in Homogeneous Mixtures’ and ‘Chemical Reactions and Flows in Heterogeneous Mixtures’ – is devoted to flows with chemical reactions in the electromagnetic field. The first part, entitled basic equations, consists of four chapters. The first chapter provides an overview of the equations of electromagnetism in Minkowski spacetime. This presentation is extended to balance equations, first in homogeneous media unpolarized in the second chapter and homogeneous fluid medium polarized in the third chapter. Chapter four is devoted to heterogeneous media in the presence of electromagnetic field. Balance equations at interfaces therein. The second part of this volume is entitled applications. It also includes four chapters. Chapter five provides a study of the action of fields on fire. Chapter six deals with a typical application for the Peltier effect, chapter seven is devoted to metal-plasma interaction, especially in the Langmuir probe and finally Chapter Eight deals with the propulsion Hall effect. Are given in appendix supplements the laws of balance with electromagnetic field and described the methodology for establishing one-dimensional equations for flow comprising active walls as is the case in some Hall effect thrusters.
This book is an archival reference for the evolving field of biomaterials and their applications in society, focusing on their composition, properties, characterization, chemistry and applications in bioenergy, chemicals, and novel materials and biomaterials. It has broad appeal due to the recent heightened awareness around bioenergy and biomass as potential replacements for petroleum feedstocks. The book is divided into three parts: cellulose-based biomaterials, chitin and chitosan biomaterials, and hemicelluloses and other polysaccharides. Each chapter addresses a separate biomaterial, discussing its chemical, physical, and biological attributes, and hones in on each compound's intrinsic tunability for numerous chemical transformations. In the current quest for a «green» economy and resources, this book will help inspire scientists towards novel sources for chemicals, materials, and energy in the years to come.
A breakthrough guide employing knowledge that unites cheminformatics and bioinformatics as innovation for the future Bridging the gap between cheminformatics and bioinformatics for the first time, Computational Approaches in Cheminformatics and Bioinformatics provides insight on how to blend these two sciences for progressive research benefits. It describes the development and evolution of these fields, how chemical information may be used for biological relations and vice versa, the implications of these new connections, and foreseeable developments in the future. Using algorithms and domains as workflow tools, this revolutionary text drives bioinformaticians to consider chemical structure, and similarly, encourages cheminformaticians to consider large biological systems such as protein targets and networks. Computational Approaches in Cheminformatics and Bioinformatics covers: Data sources available for modelling and prediction purposes Developments of conventional Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) Computational tools for manipulating chemical and biological data Novel ways of probing the interactions between small molecules and proteins Also including insight from public (NIH), academic, and industrial sources (Novartis, Pfizer), this book offers expert knowledge to aid scientists through industry and academic study. The invaluable applications for drug discovery, cellular and molecular biology, enzymology, and metabolism make Computational Approaches in Cheminformatics and Bioinformatics the essential guidebook for evolving drug discovery research and alleviating the issue of chemical control and manipulation of various systems.
This book presents and describes imaging technologies that can be used to study chemical processes and structural interactions in dynamic systems, principally in biomedical systems. The imaging technologies, largely biomedical imaging technologies such as MRT, Fluorescence mapping, raman mapping, nanoESCA, and CARS microscopy, have been selected according to their application range and to the chemical information content of their data. These technologies allow for the analysis and evaluation of delicate biological samples, which must not be disturbed during the profess. Ultimately, this may mean fewer animal lab tests and clinical trials.