Waste heat utilization is well known for saving energy, cost and environment, but its practical implementation is not common especially in developing countries. Heat is produced as a result of energy usage. Overall efficiency of the process improves if waste heat is utilized before it is lost to environment. This book discusses the waste heat recovery system designed for a Glass Factory in Pakistan. In order to extract heat from flue gases, the dew point temperature is first calculated in order to have a lower limit of flue gas exit. The exergy of flue gases is then determined based on this limiting value. This available energy is to be used to preheat the furnace oil during the low ambient temperature season. In order to impart this energy to the furnace oil, two heat exchangers have been designed. The first heat exchanger transfers heat from the flue gases to an intermediate heat transfer medium. The second heat exchanger is designed to transfer heat from to the furnace oil. An insulated piping network is also designed in order to meet the purpose. Two pumps are selected in order to pump these fluids. The expected payback period of investment is also calculated.
This book is a an outcome of successful experimental research on stationary internal combustion engine waste heat recovery for useful purposes like cooking. It shall help the readers develop a practical understanding on the concept of utilization of available waste heat from abundantly used various internal combustion engines - stationary or in motion. Key Features: # Visual Display - The book has quite a number of pictures of the experimental set-up used for an easy understanding of the environment. # Heat-Load and Time-Temperature Relationships: The impact has been discussed elaborately with the help of numerous graphs with actual readings. # Emission Studies: An added study on impact on HC and CO emissions due to addition of exhaust heat recovery system is discussed based on actual observations.
The placement of porous materials in passages can enhance the transfer of heat to a flowing fluid. Porous passages are useful devices for cooling of engineering systems. There has been a current interest in utilization of porous passages for electronic cooling applications. In this study, forced convective heat transfer in a vertical square channel symmetrically heated with a constant heat flux, and packed with saturated porous media, has been investigated theoretically and experimentally in the present work. The porous media was made with spherical glass particle of four different diameter (3, 5.6, 12 and 15.4 mm), in a range of porosity (0.38
Energy conservation and waste heat recovery are important global issues of our times. Attock Oil Refinery Limited (ARL) is pioneer in crude oil refining in Pakistan. After thorough surveys and analysis Heavy Crude Unit (HCU) was selected for energy conservation and waste heat recovery. A detailed study of the plant led to the identification of potential zones for energy conservation and waste heat recovery. Energy conservation was done in the ‘pre-heat train'' which exchanges heat between the products at high temperature and crude at low temperature. By increasing the heat exchange here, both the amount of fuel burnt in the heater to heat crude and the coolant used to cool products could be reduced. Waste heat recovery was done on the flue gases of the combined stack of two heaters which were being exhausted into the atmosphere at a temperature well above its due point temperature. Recovered heat could be used to heat up the intake air for combustion in the heater which was being used at ambient temperature, saving fuel and environment, hence addresing economic and global warming issues.
This research work includes study of impacts and hazards of computer e-waste on human health and environment in Pune city. The study observes and records the changing trends in computer e-waste. It projects level of awareness of e-waste among the citizen of Pune. It also highlights potential and dynamics of e-waste regarding computer recycling market. Followed by the various useful suggestions and guidelines for the formal management of computer e-waste in Pune city.
A rapid expansion of fisheries is demanding an adequate supply of efficient, nutritious and inexpensive fish feed, because feed contributes highly to the cost of fish production. Feeds form an essential component of successful fish farming. Feed costs can account for up to 70% of the total operating cost in aquaculture. Therefore there is a urgent need to reduce feed cost significantly in order to increase the profit margin. Waste generation is major problems in vegetable as well as fish processing. The volumes of waste generated as well as resultant environmental impacts necessitate the devising of low cost effective methods for utilization of these wastes. The present book envisages the utilization of two types of processing waste namely vegetable processing waste and Fish processing waste evaluated by incorporating in feeds for Nile tilapia. The two processing waste based feeds were evaluated against a fish meal based and clam meal based control feed. The fish processing waste feed and vegetable waste feed could replace clam meal based feed and fish meal based feed in tilapia with economic advantages without sacrificing the quality of the feed.
The manuscript examines how proper utilization of available resources improves the productivity of footwear industries that has been validated through taking peacock shoe factory as a case study. The productivity improvement in footwear industry can be approached by different methods. In this manuscript productivity improvement through work study has been conducted because Ethiopia’s leather footwear companies’ work is labor-intensive and largely depends on the skills and sensibility of the operator. Thus the productivity of a factory is adversely affected by the advantage of the operators. So this paper forwards improvement areas in resource utilization activities to improve the productivity of the case company specifically and for the leather footwear companies in general.
New Insurance Act-2000 in Pakistan requires that no insurance firms can cater to both segment (life and non life) under one company. The immediate impact of this law is that firms operating both segments under one roof have to separate them. IGI is one of the pioneer in insurance business in Pakistan and it serves both segments under single entity hence a need arises to assess marketing feasibility for the launch of IGI life as a separate entity from IGI’s general insurance business. In this book, we conducted a feasibility study for IGI to lunch operation of life insurance as separate entity. Our feasibility study includes study of product mix, consumer behavior, marketing strategy and financial analysis. Our findings suggest IGI to lunch life business
This book is basically meant as a practical guide to the animal nutritionist for utilization of poultry slaughter waste through rendering method for recycling of wastes from poultry slaughter-houses as rendered poultry byproduct meal which is of economical, biological and environmental importance. It comprises 6 chapters dealing with scope for utilization of poultry slaughter waste for reducing environmental pollution, processing methods, nutritional evaluation rendered poultry byproduct meal and its use in turkey nutrition. The book contains 86 pages. Processing methods of poultry slaughter waste dry rendering has been given in the form of materials and methods, which comprises of gross yield of slaughter waste, nutritional quality, microbiological study, storage study prepared from different type of chicken and its use in turkey nutrition, its effect on growth, immune-competence, biochemical parameter, production cost. Detailed discussion on these topics of practical importance has been included in book. The book will be useful for poultry industry as guide for utilization of slaughter waste and to minimize feed cost for profitable poultry specially turkey production.
The objective of this study is to investigate the temperature behavior of a building integrated with a thermal storage wall and a window for direct solar gain for supplying heat in winter. This is achieved by modeling and simulation with the TRNSYS (Transient System Simulation) program. A hypothetical two story building with a total floor area of 120 meter square has been modeled with the program. A Trombe wall is used on the south facade of the ground floor. Additionally a direct gain window of area 6.5 meter square is placed on the south facade of the First floor. The hourly indoor temperature variations on the ground floor are compared with that of the First floor. It is assumed that the model building is located in Cyprus and Larnaca climatic conditions are used for simulation.
In this study we present a steady three dimensional MHD flow and heat trasfer charecteristic of a viscous fluid due to bidirectional stretching sheet in a porous medium. The heat transfer analysis is carried out for two heating process namely prescribed surface temperature (PST) and prescribed heat flux (PHF). The similarity solution of the governing boundary layer partial differential equations is developed by employing homotopy analysis method(HAM)
Experimental design and simulation modeling are not commonly used methods in determining economic feasibility of investment projects. However, the advantage of integrating those sciences was taken to perform feasibility study on mushroom project which has non-deterministic parameters. Therefore, a set of experiments (scenarios) were obtained from feasibility parameters and performed using a simulation model. The best scenario was selected according to the highest Net Present Value. Mushroom project proposed in this study introduces a new local industry to Gaza Strip. This project is quietly important; it constitutes a new high nutritional value food for the people of Gaza, and provides a fair source of income to many needy families. Further, mushroom cultivation process is assigned to women and housewives, which would greatly increase women role in society.
Tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection is a major source of morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia. Routine offering of provider initiated HIV testing and counseling for TB patients is necessary to increase access to HIV care packages. However little is known about utilization of PITC service among tuberculosis patients in Ethiopia The main objective of this study is to assess the utilization of PITC service among TB patients in Ethiopia. Health facility based cross sectional survey was conducted from January to March 2010. A total of 385 participants were included in the study from seven health facilities. The study utilized both quantitative and qualitative study designs. Study participants were interviewed using structured questionnaire and three focus group discussions were conducted among TB patients.The utilization of PITC service among TB patients in the studied health facilities was 78.1%.
This book is based on a comprehensive survey that was conducted in the City of Pretoria, South Africa to identify key predictors of efficiency in the management of solid waste produced by 1, 034 commercial businesses operating in Pretoria. Efficiency in the management of solid waste was measured based on a structural time-based model. Data analyses were performed by fitting a binary logistic regression model and multilevel analysis. The study showed that 17% of the businesses selected for the study were inefficient with regards to the management of solid waste. The study identified 4 predictors of efficiency in the management of solid waste. These 4 influential predictor variables were lack of adherence to waste management regulations, wrong perception on the value and importance of proper management of waste, failure to provide customers with enough trash cans, and the operation of businesses by non-owners, in a decreasing order of importance. Results obtained from multilevel analysis showed that efficiency in the management of solid waste varied significantly depending on category of solid waste (23.05%) and geographical location (19.45%).