With the emergence of fertility declines in the greater part of the developing world, study of the phenomenon has increased profoundly over the last three decades, and a voluminous amount of literature has emerged. Yet our knowledge of the decline is scattered in numerous publications, making sources difficult to find. This bibliography provides a guide to the literature on fertility decline in Latin America, Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa. It will be an invaluable asset for population experts and students wishing to do research on fertility decline. Covering the literature from 1960 to 1997, the book draws on extensive sources including books, articles in leading population journals, research papers, and dissertations. The opening chapter covers the literature on theories and concepts underlying fertility decline. The next three chapters are devoted to the major geographical areas-Latin America, Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa-and the final chapter looks at general literature on fertility declines in developing countries.
Experience suggests that trade liberalization has contributed substantially to the remarkable growth of industrialised countries. However, for various reasons many developing countries have not yet been able to integrate successfully into global markets and reap the growth-inducing and poverty-reducing benefits of trade. This book argues that while developing countries are heavily represented in the WTO - accounting for about four fifths of its membership -there is still plenty of scope for the world trading system to work more effectively in their interests. The book examines the achievements of the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations in reforming the world trading system and the challenges to future reforms. It begins with an overview of the genesis of the world trading system and moves on to examine the key issues as they relate to developing countries. These include further liberalization of agricultural trade; abolition of the Multifibre Arrangement; environmental and labour standards; competition policy; regional integration in South East Asia; and the implications for developing Asian countries of the liberalization of the Chinese economy and its WTO membership. Furthermore, the book discusses the links between trade liberalization and poverty reduction -drawing on the experience of Asian countries - and puts forward arguments on how trade liberalization could effect a greater reduction in poverty. This is a timely and succinct presentation of the critical issues relat...
This fifth edition of the essential history of world population is updated with the most recent and significant scholarship on the topic. Reworked sections analyze the impact of environmental and climate change, discuss declining fertility in developing nations, and track the continuing impact of HIV-AIDS. Central themes updated and revised to take account of new scholarship Includes new sections on theories of migration in pre-history Expands discussion of low fertility rates in developing Asian and Latin American countries Fuller coverage of population and environmental change, including the effects of climate change Bibliographic updates include weblinks to key scientific journals
Using a comparative, interdisciplinary approach, Nationalism in Asia analyzes currents of nationalism in five contemporary Asian societies: China, India, Indonesia, Japan, and South Korea. Explores the ways in which nationalism is expressed, embraced, challenged, and resisted in contemporary China, India, Indonesia, Japan, and South Korea using a comparative, interdisciplinary approach Provides an important trans-national and trans-regional analysis by looking at five countries that span Northeast, Southeast, and South Asia Features comparative analysis of identity politics, democracy, economic policy, nation branding, sports, shared trauma, memory and culture wars, territorial disputes, national security and minorities Offers an accessible, thematic narrative written for non-specialists, including a detailed and up-to-date bibliography Gives readers an in-depth understanding of the ramifications of nationalism in these countries for the future of Asia
The study contributes in analytical description of spatial diffusion of fertility, in particular, influenced by labour movements of people between places of residence and work. It is assumed that the labour market has externality on the marriage market due to commuting, which, in turn, affects fertility. A model of spatial diffusion of fertility is based on assumption of global and local spillover effects. The global spillover effect, as shifts in fertility norms, is motivated by increasing variance of social interactions of an individual, when places of work and residence are different. One local spillover effect is in response to flows of earnings across space. Another mechanism is related to expected changes in probabilities to find a partner affected by differences in day and night population. The analytical model, in which the effects on fertility of the cited spillovers are decomposed, is constructed in the paper on the base of a model of the demand for children, spatial stock-flow model of a market, and a matching model with a sex imbalance or spatial mismatch as the probability of matching. Three sex imbalances, namely of night-, day-time population and an adjusted to sex imbalance of commuters to residents are empirically tested. Empirical evidence on municipal Swedish data for the period 1994–2008 does not provide any strong evidence of spatial diffusion of fertility. However, there are externalities of labour mobility on fertility due to changes of gender structure of population.
Over the past decade the topic of emissions reduction and control has remained an important area of research due to the enforcement of various Government policies in an attempt to minimize the impact on the environment. One area in which a great deal of research has been conducted to address this policy is NOx/SOx suppression. However, despite the progress that has been made over this time period, further research into the most effective method of reducing NOx/SOx emissions is still urgently required. In developed countries, a more stringent requirement in the level of emissions (such as is NOx/SOx component of less than 10ppm) will be enforced in the near future. Developing countries will also need a new technology that is effective and that is suited to each countries needs. Additional research and development efforts are thus necessary to meet such requirements.
Book DescriptionAn investigation of the consequences resulting from fertility-related development interventions in Tanzania
While many high-income countries observe a relative decline in the population impact of heart disease and deal with the problem of an older patient population who readily survive earlier non-fatal encounters with the condition, Africa contends with a typically younger population with frequently advanced and often fatal heart disease. While high-income countries exclusively deal with non-communicable forms of heart disease, Africa contends with both communicable and non-communicable forms of heart disease. Designed to provide anyone with an interest in heart disease in Africa with an immediate sense of how the area is progressing from a clinical to research perspective in responding to this evolving epidemic Presents salient research uncovering the evolving burden of communicable and non-communicable forms of heart disease, Includes content on maternal heart disease, infant and childhood heart disease, risk and prevention, heart failure and other common forms of heart disease in rural and urban communities in Africa.
Improving Water and Nutrient Use Efficiency in Food Production Systems provides professionals, students, and policy makers with an in-depth view of various aspects of water and nutrient us in crop production. The book covers topics related to global economic, political, and social issues related to food production and distribution, describes various strategies and mechanisms that increase water and nutrient use efficiency, and review te curren situation and potential improvements in major food-producing systems on each continent. The book also deals with problems experienced by developed countries separtaely from problems facing developing countries. Improving Water and Nutrient Use Efficiency emphasizes judicious water and nutrient management which is aimed at maximising water and nutrient utilisation in the agricultural landscape, and minimising undesirable nutrient losses to the environment.
The innovation capacity-building can contribute to improve the integration of developing countries in the world economy. The economic development has been a much discussed subject of the period after the Second World War until the 1990s. After the implementation of a global regulation system for trade and capital flows in the 1990s, the development economics has almost disappeared in favor of different theories on globalization, on finance and on international trade. The purpose of this book is to show that the innovation capacity building in developing countries is necessary to improve their weight in the world economy and to facilitate their economic ties with northern countries. However, there are important difficulties due to the lack of proactive economic policies. Our aim is to contribute to the revival of the development economics. The issue of improving the well-being of the world population as a whole is highly topical. However, studies neglect the need to give economic, financial, technological and political resources to developing countries to promote their own development. One of the most important means is to strengthen their innovation capabilities that allow them to better integrate into the world economy.
An innovator in contemporary thought on economic and political development looks here at decline rather than growth. Albert O. Hirschman makes a basic distinction between alternative ways of reacting to deterioration in business firms and, in general, to dissatisfaction with organizations: one, “exit,” is for the member to quit the organization or for the customer to switch to the competing product, and the other, “voice,” is for members or customers to agitate and exert influence for change "from within".
The Second Edition of A History of the Later Roman Empire features extensive revisions and updates to the highly-acclaimed, sweeping historical survey of the Roman Empire from the accession of Diocletian in AD 284 to the death of Heraclius in 641. Features a revised narrative of the political history that shaped the late Roman Empire Includes extensive changes to the chapters on regional history, especially those relating to Asia Minor and Egypt Offers a renewed evaluation of the decline of the empire in the later sixth and seventh centuries Places a larger emphasis on the military deficiencies, collapse of state finances, and role of bubonic plague throughout the Europe in Rome’s decline Includes systematic updates to the bibliography
Since 2009, a diverse group of developing states that includes China, Brazil, Ethiopia and Costa Rica has been advancing unprecedented pledges to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, offering new, unexpected signs of climate leadership. Some scholars have gone so far as to argue that these targets are now even more ambitious than those put forward by their wealthier counterparts. But what really lies behind these new pledges? What actions are being taken to meet them? And what stumbling blocks lie in the way of their realization? In this book, an international group of scholars seeks to address these questions by analyzing the experiences of twelve states from across Asia, the Americas and Africa. The authors map the evolution of climate policies in each country and examine the complex array of actors, interests, institutions and ideas that has shaped their approaches. Offering the most comprehensive analysis thus far of the unique challenges that developing countries face in the domain of climate change, Climate Governance in the Developing World reveals the political, economic and environmental realities that underpin the pledges made by developing states, and which together determine the chances of success and failure.
Environmental Psychology: An Introduction offers a research-based introduction to the psychological relationship between humans and their built and natural environments and discusses how sustainable environments can be created to the benefit of both people and nature Explores the environment's effects on human wellbeing and behaviour, factors influencing environmental behaviour and ways of encouraging pro-environmental action Provides a state-of-the-art overview of recent developments in environmental psychology, with an emphasis on sustainability as a unifying principle for theory, research and interventions While focusing primarily on Europe and North America, also discusses environmental psychology in non-Western and developing countries Responds to a growing interest in the contribution of environmental psychologists to understanding and solving environmental problems and promoting the effects of environmental conditions on health and wellbeing