With the emergence of fertility declines in the greater part of the developing world, study of the phenomenon has increased profoundly over the last three decades, and a voluminous amount of literature has emerged. Yet our knowledge of the decline is scattered in numerous publications, making sources difficult to find. This bibliography provides a guide to the literature on fertility decline in Latin America, Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa. It will be an invaluable asset for population experts and students wishing to do research on fertility decline. Covering the literature from 1960 to 1997, the book draws on extensive sources including books, articles in leading population journals, research papers, and dissertations. The opening chapter covers the literature on theories and concepts underlying fertility decline. The next three chapters are devoted to the major geographical areas-Latin America, Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa-and the final chapter looks at general literature on fertility declines in developing countries.
Experience suggests that trade liberalization has contributed substantially to the remarkable growth of industrialised countries. However, for various reasons many developing countries have not yet been able to integrate successfully into global markets and reap the growth-inducing and poverty-reducing benefits of trade. This book argues that while developing countries are heavily represented in the WTO - accounting for about four fifths of its membership -there is still plenty of scope for the world trading system to work more effectively in their interests. The book examines the achievements of the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations in reforming the world trading system and the challenges to future reforms. It begins with an overview of the genesis of the world trading system and moves on to examine the key issues as they relate to developing countries. These include further liberalization of agricultural trade; abolition of the Multifibre Arrangement; environmental and labour standards; competition policy; regional integration in South East Asia; and the implications for developing Asian countries of the liberalization of the Chinese economy and its WTO membership. Furthermore, the book discusses the links between trade liberalization and poverty reduction -drawing on the experience of Asian countries - and puts forward arguments on how trade liberalization could effect a greater reduction in poverty. This is a timely and succinct presentation of the critical issues relating to the world trading system in the context of developing countries in general, and Asia-Pacific countries in particular. It will interest and inform a wide readership including scholars and students of development and international economics, and practitioners and policymakers concerned with international trade issues and global trade relations.
This fifth edition of the essential history of world population is updated with the most recent and significant scholarship on the topic. Reworked sections analyze the impact of environmental and climate change, discuss declining fertility in developing nations, and track the continuing impact of HIV-AIDS. Central themes updated and revised to take account of new scholarship Includes new sections on theories of migration in pre-history Expands discussion of low fertility rates in developing Asian and Latin American countries Fuller coverage of population and environmental change, including the effects of climate change Bibliographic updates include weblinks to key scientific journals
Over the past decade the topic of emissions reduction and control has remained an important area of research due to the enforcement of various Government policies in an attempt to minimize the impact on the environment. One area in which a great deal of research has been conducted to address this policy is NOx/SOx suppression. However, despite the progress that has been made over this time period, further research into the most effective method of reducing NOx/SOx emissions is still urgently required. In developed countries, a more stringent requirement in the level of emissions (such as is NOx/SOx component of less than 10ppm) will be enforced in the near future. Developing countries will also need a new technology that is effective and that is suited to each countries needs. Additional research and development efforts are thus necessary to meet such requirements.
The study contributes in analytical description of spatial diffusion of fertility, in particular, influenced by labour movements of people between places of residence and work. It is assumed that the labour market has externality on the marriage market due to commuting, which, in turn, affects fertility. A model of spatial diffusion of fertility is based on assumption of global and local spillover effects. The global spillover effect, as shifts in fertility norms, is motivated by increasing variance of social interactions of an individual, when places of work and residence are different. One local spillover effect is in response to flows of earnings across space. Another mechanism is related to expected changes in probabilities to find a partner affected by differences in day and night population. The analytical model, in which the effects on fertility of the cited spillovers are decomposed, is constructed in the paper on the base of a model of the demand for children, spatial stock-flow model of a market, and a matching model with a sex imbalance or spatial mismatch as the probability of matching. Three sex imbalances, namely of night-, day-time population and an adjusted to sex imbalance of commuters to residents are empirically tested. Empirical evidence on municipal Swedish data for the period 1994–2008 does not provide any strong evidence of spatial diffusion of fertility. However, there are externalities of labour mobility on fertility due to changes of gender structure of population.
Book DescriptionAn investigation of the consequences resulting from fertility-related development interventions in Tanzania
Improving Water and Nutrient Use Efficiency in Food Production Systems provides professionals, students, and policy makers with an in-depth view of various aspects of water and nutrient us in crop production. The book covers topics related to global economic, political, and social issues related to food production and distribution, describes various strategies and mechanisms that increase water and nutrient use efficiency, and review te curren situation and potential improvements in major food-producing systems on each continent. The book also deals with problems experienced by developed countries separtaely from problems facing developing countries. Improving Water and Nutrient Use Efficiency emphasizes judicious water and nutrient management which is aimed at maximising water and nutrient utilisation in the agricultural landscape, and minimising undesirable nutrient losses to the environment.
An innovator in contemporary thought on economic and political development looks here at decline rather than growth. Albert O. Hirschman makes a basic distinction between alternative ways of reacting to deterioration in business firms and, in general, to dissatisfaction with organizations: one, “exit,” is for the member to quit the organization or for the customer to switch to the competing product, and the other, “voice,” is for members or customers to agitate and exert influence for change "from within".
Environmental Psychology: An Introduction offers a research-based introduction to the psychological relationship between humans and their built and natural environments and discusses how sustainable environments can be created to the benefit of both people and nature Explores the environment's effects on human wellbeing and behaviour, factors influencing environmental behaviour and ways of encouraging pro-environmental action Provides a state-of-the-art overview of recent developments in environmental psychology, with an emphasis on sustainability as a unifying principle for theory, research and interventions While focusing primarily on Europe and North America, also discusses environmental psychology in non-Western and developing countries Responds to a growing interest in the contribution of environmental psychologists to understanding and solving environmental problems and promoting the effects of environmental conditions on health and wellbeing
Growing evidence suggests that 'green box' farm subsidies may in fact affect production and trade, harm farmers in developing countries and cause environmental damage. This book brings together new research and analysis examining the relationship between green box subsidies and sustainable development goals, and explores options for future reform.
This comprehensive textbook analyzes the ethical issues of health and health care in global perspective. Ideal for students of public health, medicine, nursing and allied health professions, public policy, and ethics, the book helps students in all these areas to develop important competencies in their chosen fields. Applying a comparative, or multicultural, approach, the book compares different perspectives on ethical issues in various countries and cultures, such as informed consent, withholding or withdrawing treatment, physician-assisted suicide, reproductive health issues, research with human subjects, the right to health care, rationing of limited resources, and health system reform. Applying a transnational, or cross-border, approach, the book analyzes ethical issues that arise from the movement of patients and health professionals across national borders, such as medical tourism and transplant tourism, ethical obligations to provide care for undocumented aliens, and the “brain drain” of health professionals from developing countries. Comprehensive in scope, the book includes selected readings which provide diverse perspectives of people from different countries and cultures in their own words. Each chapter contains an introductory section centered on a specific topic and explores the different ways in which the topic is viewed around the globe. Ethics in Health Services and Policy is designed to promote student participation and offers methods of activity-based learning, including factual scenarios for analysis and discussion of specific ethical issues.
An inside look at the shocking decline of Reuters. * Features exclusive interviews with Reuters staffers, competitors, and clients * Written by two former Reuters journalists * Examines one of the biggest stories in recent journalism history
Media Literacies: A Critical Introduction traces the history of media literacy and grapples with the fresh challenges posed by the convergent media of the 21st century. The book provides a much-needed guide to what it means to be literate in today’s media-saturated environment. Updates traditional models of media literacy by examining how digital media is utilized in today’s convergent culture Explores the history and emergence of media education, the digitally mediated lives of today’s youth, digital literacy, and critical citizenship Complete with sidebar commentary written by leading media researchers and educators spotlighting new research in the field and an annotated bibliography of key texts and resources