Nowadays, Salinity and Allelopathy are the key factors causing decrease in growth and productivity of almost all the crops. An alternative approach for coping with salinity and Allelochemical stress could, therefore, be to attempt to supplement essential sodium antagonistic minerals through foliar application. This idea behind the present work is to diminish effect of salinity and allelopathy in plant to a tolerable level. The aim of the present study was to assess as to whether foliar applications of micro nutrients were effective in inducing salt stress tolerance in sunflower plants. Keeping this in view, an experiment was carried out to study the interaction of boron (B), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) on growth and physiology of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus. L)plant.
Close analysis of the present investigation revealed that the foliar application of nutrients were able to increase the yield of banana cv. Grand Naine. Among the thirteen different treatments of sprays with in Zn (0.5%) + Fe (0.2%) + Cu (0.2%) + B (0.1%) was found to be more effective in increasing the yield and yield contributing characters. In present investigation foliar application of Zn (0.5%) + Fe (0.2%) + Cu (0.2%) + B (0.1%), Potassium (0.5%) and Zn (0.5%) + B (0.1%) helps in increasing the quality attributes of banana. Whereas, foliar spray of i.e. Urea (1.0%), Potassium (0.5%, Zn (0.5%) and Fe (0.2%) helps in increasing the status of nutrients in the leaves of banana cv. Grand Naine.
Micronutrients are key elements in plant growth and development. Deficiencies of Ca, Zn, Fe and B have been increasing in some fruit crops. Some reasons are higher crop yields which increase plant nutrient demands, use of high analyses NPK fertilizers containing lower quantities of micro-nutrient contaminants and decreased use of farmyard manure on many agricultural soils. The combined foliar application of Ca, Zn, Fe and B as a source of calcium nitrate 1000mg/l + borax 30mg/l + zinc sulphate 200 mg/l + ferrous sulphate 200 mg/l was favorable to influenced the plant growth characters, physiological attributes, yield as well as quality of papaya. Moreover, the application of borax individually at 30mg/l was showed the earliness in flowering when apply at 60, 90 and 120 days after planting of papaya cv. Taiwan Red Lady.
Foliar application of plant nutrients appeared to be the most promising tool in modern plant nutrition management. While foliar application provides a quick relief to the plants under the deficiencies of various nutrients, it also helps maintain/improve growth, yield and quality of crops under nutrient deficiency stresses. This monograph emphasizes the role of foliar application of nitrogen as urea in enhancing the nutrient uptake (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium), yield and quality of wheat.
Salinity is the major environmental factors that lead to a deterioration of agricultural land and a reduction in crop productivity worldwide. The given investigations were undertaken to find out the effect of salinity and allelopathy on growth, biochemical contents and accumulation of Osmo-protectants in studied Crop and also to assess whether exogenous application of some essential micronutrients (Mn+B+Zn) through foliar spray could ameliorate the adverse effects of salt+ allelochemical stress on growth and biochemical activities of methi plant. Foliar spraying with micronutrient induced stimulatory effects on growth parameters and nutrients uptake either before or after the salinization treatments. The results of this study suggest that foliar spray with micronutrient may have a potential role for increasing plant tolerance to salinity and allelopathy stress. The application spray appeared to ameliorate the toxic effects of excessive sodium and allelochemical present in growing medium which is reflected by producing economically feasible yield even beyond the threshold value of salinity for studied crop.
Residual effects of Zinc (Zn) fertilizer and farmyard manure (FYM) help in economizing the fertilizer use without any adverse effect on soil fertility and crop yields. No information is available for residual effect of Zn fertilizer applied in conjunction with FYM to rice-wheat rotation practiced in the northern plains, hot sub-humid (dry) ecoregion of India. The present investigation was carried out to determine the residual effect of Zn fertilizer application with or without farmyard manure on yields, cationic micro-nutrients (Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn) concentration and uptake of third crop rice and fourth crop wheat under rotation. The residual of conjoint use of 2.5 or 3.75 Kg Zn/ha + 5 t FYM/ha was found most beneficial for increasing both yields and nutrient uptake of both rice and wheat crops.
The productivity of crops in wetland is constrained by the reduced availability of Sulphur (S) and micronutrients like Boron (B), Copper (Cu), and Zinc (Zn) in acid soil. A greenhouse study was conducted using acid soil (Inceptisol, Silty loam) to evaluate the effects of liming, soil moisture regime and application of Sulfur, Boron, Copper and Zinc on the availability of applied nutrients, growth and yield of rice. The effects of application of lime (2.0 t/ha) over no lime; alternate flooding and drying (AFD) over continuous flooding (CF) and moisture regime maintained at field capacity (FC); and nutrients viz., S, B, Cu and Zn on growth and yield of rice were assessed. Rice cv. IR 36 was grown with NPK applied @ 60 mg N, 30 mg P2O5 and 30 mg K2O /kg soil. S, B, Cu, and Zn were applied @ 10, 0.5, 1.5 and 5 mg/kg of soil, respectively. Application of 22.4 kg S, 1.12 kg B, 3.36 kg Cu, and 11.2 kg Zn/ha significantly enhanced the growth and yield of rice over control in alluvial soil. Yield response of rice to the application of S, B, Cu and Zn was further improved by liming and alternate flooding and drying during the growing season.
Seed quality is one of the most important factors for stand establishment in cotton (Gossypium Sp.), and the use of good quality seeds is therefore essential to obtain an optimum plant population. Conditions prevailing during seed formation can affect the quality of seed produced, and hence crop establishment in the next growing season. These conditions can affect the germination of the seeds and the ability of the seedlings to emerge from soil. Field experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), foliar application of zinc (Zn) and calcium (Ca), the use of plant growth retardants (PGR) [e.g., 1, 1-dimethyl piperidinium chloride (MC); 2-chloroethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (CC); or succinic acid 2, 2-dimethyl hydrazide (SADH)], during square initiation and boll setting stage, on growth, seed yield, seed viability, and seedling vigor of Egyptian cotton (G. barbadense). Dry matter yield, total chlorophyll concentration, K, Zn and P-uptake plant-1, were increased with the addition of K, and foliar application of Zn, and different concentrations of P (576-1728 g ha-1of P).
Cotton crop is the main stay of Pakistan’s economy. It occupies a central position in the national economy. Potassium is an essential nutrient for normal plant growth. The timing of any foliar spray is critical to the optimum efficiency of the foliar treatment. It is important to recognize that it is generally cheaper to supply K from soil-applied potash than it is to make supplemental foliar-application. Correcting K deficiency in fast-fruiting cotton cultivars requires information on growth response to available soil K, soil K2O rates, and supplemental foliar. This project investigated the effect of foliar and soil application of K2SO4 fertilizer on the growth, yield and fiber properties of cotton variety NIAB and evaluated the effect of foliar and soil application of K on soil and plant content.
The present research project was executed during 2008–2009, to evaluate the effect of Zn, B (micro-nutrients) in combination with N for the tomato grown under high tunnel. Micro-nutrients were purchased from 4B Group of Fertilizers. The experiment was arranged in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with fifteen treatments with three replications. The parameters on vegetative and reproductive response were recorded and statistically analyzed at 5 % level of significance. The treatment means were compared by DMR test. After the statistical analysis it was found that as compared to control when different dozes of micronutrients were applied by foliar method, the plants showed variations in their heights, no. of leaves, no of flowers, no of fruits, average fruit weight and yield per plant and same case in quality parameters like TSS %age, Vit. C contents and acidity %age. The treatment T14 (Navigator with Zn = 6%, B = 5%, N = 2%) indicated the maximum average values in all parameter among all other treatments revealed the nearly same results except T3 (Boll feed with B = 5%) and T5 (Sugar Mover with B = 6%) respectively.
Crop fertilization with potassium in rainfed agriculture in India is altogether missing merely on the assumption that Indian soils are rich in potassium and crops do not need external potassium supply. However, under continuous cropping in rainfed regions, most of the crops essentially deplete soil potassium reserves. Balanced fertilization is essential for maximum yields and maintenance of soil fertility. The maximum benefit due to application of N, P, K fertilizers and even secondary nutrients is not obtained in absence of adequate quantities of available micronutrients in the soil. Foliar feeding is often effective when roots are unable to absorb sufficient nutrients from the soil. Such a condition could arise from an infertile soil, a high degree of soil fixation, losses from leaching, cold soil temperatures, a lack of soil moisture, or a restricted, injured, or diseased root system. Foliar feeding has proven of great benefit with new improved selections of some crops in which the roots have lost their inherent capacity to absorb sufficient amounts of some nutrients.
Consumption of fruits is important for human health because these are primary sources of some essential nutrients and contain phytochemicals that lower risk of chronic disease like cancer. It is well established fact that citrus is a rich source of vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber that are essential for normal growth and development and overall nutritional well-being. Pakistan occupies a prominent position among world citrus producers. Kinnow mandarin is the most important fruit of the country. Tree nutrition plays a significant role in citrus to get maximum production. Although macro nutrients occupy a major role in citrus nutrition but micro nutrients are also essential for vegetative and reproductive growth, yield and fruit quality of citrus including boron. It increases pollen grain germination, pollen tube elongation, consequently fruit set percentage and finally the yield. Most of the cultivated soils of the country are exhibiting multiple nutrient deficiencies inclusive of boron because of their alkaline-calcareous nature which is not favorable to micronutrient availability. Foliar application is a shotgun approach to supply micronutrients.
STUDIES ON ENHANCING SEED PRODUCTIVITY OF MALE PARENT SB(YF) 425 OF DCH-32 COTTON HYBRID.The major factors attributed for the difference in the yield of seed cotton are the yield attributes viz., number of flowers produced per plant, number of bolls per plant, boll setting percentage and boll weight. It is well known that adverse climatic conditions bring on imbalance in the growth and development of plant leading to the shedding of reproductive parts, there by reducing the yield considerably in cotton. The micro nutrients are capable of redistributing dry matter in the plant thereby bringing about an improvement in the yield. In cotton, the seed cotton yield depends on the accumulation of photo assimilates and partitioning in different parts of the plant. The yield is strongly influenced by the application of micro nutrients indicating the role of these micro nutrients in increasing the yield through their effect on various morpho-physioligical traits. Foliar application of micro nutrients is known to increase the yield of cotton crop.
Pulses are the major sources of dietary protein in the vegetarian diet. Food is complete and balanced only when pulses are added. The World Health Organization recommends a per capita consumption of pulses at 80 grams per day.But at present the per capita availability of pulses is only 40 g day-1 in India. The lower productivity of greengram could be attributed to cultivation in marginal and poor soils, inadequate irrigation, poor management practices, higher susceptibility to pest and diseases and heavy flower drop. Among these, one of the important reasons for poor yield of greengram is its fertilization aspect. Foliar spray of nutrients is the fastest way to boost up crop growth. Under rainfed condition when the availability of moisture becomes scarce the application of fertilizers as foliar spray resulted in efficient absorption and usage. Though foliar spray is not a substitute to soil application but it certainly be considered as a supplement to soil application. The present investigation showed a significant increase in grain yield by the application of growth regulators and chemical fertilizers through foliar along with the recommended dose of fertilizers.