A comprehensive and practical guide to ethnographic research, this book guides you through the process, starting with the fundamentals of choosing and proposing a topic and selecting a research design. It describes methods of data collection (taking notes, participant observation, interviewing, identifying themes and issues, creating ethnographic maps and tables and charts, and referring to secondary sources) and analyzing and writing ethnography (sorting and coding data, answering questions, choosing a presentation style, and assembling the ethnography). Although content is focused on producing written ethnography, many of the principles and methods discussed here also apply to other forms of ethnographic presentation, including ethnographic film. Designed to give basic hands-on experience in the overall ethnography research process, Ethnography Essentials covers a wealth of topics, enabling anyone new to ethnography research to successfully explore the excitement and challenges of field research.
Mathematical finance has grown into a huge area of research which requires a lot of care and a large number of sophisticated mathematical tools. Mathematically rigorous and yet accessible to advanced level practitioners and mathematicians alike, it considers various aspects of the application of statistical methods in finance and illustrates some of the many ways that statistical tools are used in financial applications. Financial Statistics and Mathematical Finance: Provides an introduction to the basics of financial statistics and mathematical finance. Explains the use and importance of statistical methods in econometrics and financial engineering. Illustrates the importance of derivatives and calculus to aid understanding in methods and results. Looks at advanced topics such as martingale theory, stochastic processes and stochastic integration. Features examples throughout to illustrate applications in mathematical and statistical finance. Is supported by an accompanying website featuring R code and data sets. Financial Statistics and Mathematical Finance introduces the financial methodology and the relevant mathematical tools in a style that is both mathematically rigorous and yet accessible to advanced level practitioners and mathematicians alike, both graduate students and researchers in statistics, finance, econometrics and business administration will benefit from this book.
Stereological methods provide researchers with unparalleled quantitative data from tissue samples and allow for well-evidenced research advances in a broad range of scientific fields. Presenting a concise introduction to the methodology and application of stereological research in neuroscience, Neurostereology provides a fuller understanding of the use of these methods in research and a means for replicating successful scientific approaches. Providing sound footing for future research, Neurostereology is a useful tool for basic and clinical researchers and advanced students looking to integrate these methods into their research.
Quantitative and Statistical Research Methods This user-friendly textbook teaches students to understand and apply procedural steps in completing quantitative studies. It explains statistics while progressing through the steps of the hypothesis-testing process from hypothesis to results. The research problems used in the book reflect statistical applications related to interesting and important topics. In addition, the book provides a Research Analysis and Interpretation Guide to help students analyze research articles. Designed as a hands-on resource, each chapter covers a single research problem and offers directions for implementing the research method from start to finish. Readers will learn how to: Pinpoint research questions and hypotheses Identify, classify, and operationally define the study variables Choose appropriate research designs Conduct power analysis Select an appropriate statistic for the problem Use a data set Conduct data screening and analyses using SPSS Interpret the statistics Write the results related to the problem Quantitative and Statistical Research Methods allows students to immediately, independently, and successfully apply quantitative methods to their own research projects.
Based on a set of four research parameters, this book discusses the development of research questions and hypotheses, naturalistic and experimental research, data collection, and validation of research instruments. Each chapter includes examples and activities.
A unique primer on quantitative methods as applied to Islamic finance Introductory Mathematics and Statistics for Islamic Finance + Website is a comprehensive guide to quantitative methods, specifically as applied within the realm of Islamic finance. With applications based on research, the book provides readers with the working knowledge of math and statistics required to understand Islamic finance theory and practice. The numerous worked examples give students with various backgrounds a uniform set of common tools for studying Islamic finance. The in-depth study of finance requires a strong foundation in quantitative methods. Without a good grasp of math, probability, and statistics, published theoretical and applied works in Islamic finance remain out of reach. Unlike a typical math text, this book guides students through only the methods that directly apply to Islamic finance, without wasting time on irrelevant techniques. Each chapter contains a detailed explanation of the topic at hand, followed by an example based on real situations encountered in Islamic finance. Topics include: Algebra and matrices Calculus and differential equations Probability theory Statistics Written by leading experts on the subject, the book serves as a useful primer on the analysis methods and techniques students will encounter in published research, as well as day-to-day operations in finance. Anyone aspiring to be successful in Islamic finance needs these skills, and Introductory Mathematics and Statistics for Islamic Finance + Website is a clear, concise, and highly relevant guide.
A fundamental and straightforward guide to using and understanding statistical concepts in medical research Designed specifically for healthcare practitioners who need to understand basic biostatistics but do not have much time to spare, The Essentials of Biostatistics for Physicians, Nurses and Clinicians presents important statistical methods used in today's biomedical research and provides insight on their appropriate application. Rather than provide detailed mathematics for each of these methods, the book emphasizes what healthcare practitioners need to know to interpret and incorporate the latest biomedical research into their practices. The author draws from his own experience developing and teaching biostatistics courses for physicians and nurses, offering a presentation that is non-technical and accessible. The book begins with a basic introduction to the relationship between biostatistics and medical research, asking the question «why study statistics?,» while also exploring the significance of statisitcal methods in medical literature and clinical trials research. Subsequent chapters explore key topics, including: Correlation, regression, and logistic regression Diagnostics Estimating means and proportions Normal distribution and the central limit theorem Sampling from populations Contingency tables Meta-analysis Nonparametric methods Survival analysis Throughout the book, statistical methods that are often utilized in biomedical research are outlined, including repeated measures analysis of variance, hazard ratios, contingency tables, log rank tests, bioequivalence, cross-over designs, selection bias, and group sequential methods. Exercise sets at the end of each chapter allow readers to test their comprehension of the presented concepts and techniques. The Essentials of Biostatistics for Physicians, Nurses, and Clinicians is an excellent reference for doctors, nurses, and other practicing clinicians in the fields of medicine, public health, pharmacy, and the life sciences who need to understand and apply statistical methods in their everyday work. It also serves as a suitable supplement for courses on biostatistics at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels.
A fresh approach to bridging research design with statistical analysis While good social science requires both research design and statistical analysis, most books treat these two areas separately. Understanding and Applying Research Design introduces an accessible approach to integrating design and statistics, focusing on the processes of posing, testing, and interpreting research questions in the social sciences. The authors analyze real-world data using SPSS software, guiding readers on the overall process of science, focusing on premises, procedures, and designs of social scientific research. Three clearly organized sections move seamlessly from theoretical topics to statistical techniques at the heart of research procedures, and finally, to practical application of research design: Premises of Research introduces the research process and the capabilities of SPSS, with coverage of ethics, Empirical Generalization, and Chi Square and Contingency Table Analysis Procedures of Research explores key quantitative methods in research design including measurement, correlation, regression, and causation Designs of Research outlines various design frameworks, with discussion of survey research, aggregate research, and experiments Throughout the book, SPSS software is used to showcase the discussed techniques, and detailed appendices provide guidance on key statistical procedures and tips for data management. Numerous exercises allow readers to test their comprehension of the presented material, and a related website features additional data sets and SPSS code. Understanding and Applying Research Design is an excellent book for social sciences and education courses on research methods at the upper-undergraduate level. The book is also an insightful reference for professionals who would like to learn how to pose, test, and interpret research questions with confidence.
An original account of willful ignorance and how this principle relates to modern probability and statistical methods Through a series of colorful stories about great thinkers and the problems they chose to solve, the author traces the historical evolution of probability and explains how statistical methods have helped to propel scientific research. However, the past success of statistics has depended on vast, deliberate simplifications amounting to willful ignorance, and this very success now threatens future advances in medicine, the social sciences, and other fields. Limitations of existing methods result in frequent reversals of scientific findings and recommendations, to the consternation of both scientists and the lay public. Willful Ignorance: The Mismeasure of Uncertainty exposes the fallacy of regarding probability as the full measure of our uncertainty. The book explains how statistical methodology, though enormously productive and influential over the past century, is approaching a crisis. The deep and troubling divide between qualitative and quantitative modes of research, and between research and practice, are reflections of this underlying problem. The author outlines a path toward the re-engineering of data analysis to help close these gaps and accelerate scientific discovery. Willful Ignorance: The Mismeasure of Uncertainty presents essential information and novel ideas that should be of interest to anyone concerned about the future of scientific research. The book is especially pertinent for professionals in statistics and related fields, including practicing and research clinicians, biomedical and social science researchers, business leaders, and policy-makers.
Designing and Conducting Research in Health and Human Performance shows students how to become effective producers and consumers of health and human performance research. The book provides comprehensive coverage of both quantitative and qualitative research methods and includes step-by-step guidance for writing effective research proposals and theses. In addition, the authors show how to read, assess, interpret, and apply published research and how to conduct basic studies in health, physical education, exercise science, athletic training, and recreation. Designing and Conducting Research in Health and Human Performance is filled with illustrative examples that emphasize the real-world applications of research methods. Throughout, the authors draw on a variety of examples that were selected because they provide a context to further the understanding of health and human performance research. Research to Practice examples and Tips are included by the authors to help students better appreciate the book's content. These study aids provide suggestions and additional resources to assist students in understanding the research process. Key Terms, defined and highlighted, enrich each chapter. Chapter Review Questions, designed to help students comprehend and follow best practices in research methods, close each chapter. Online resources and guides developed by the authors to support and enhance students' learning of important research concepts are available.
Research Methods in Second Language Acquisition: A Practical Guideis an informative guide to research design and methodology for graduate students and scholars. Each chapter of this volume offers background, step-by-step guidance, and relevant studies to create comprehensive coverage of each method. Includes chapters by expert scholars on an array of topics, including second language writing and reading, meta-analyses, research replication, qualitative data collection and analysis, and more Includes feature boxes in each chapter highlighting relevant research studies, discussion questions and suggested further readings Utilizes research methods and tools from varied fields of study including education, linguistics, psychology, and sociology
Regression Methods for Medical Research provides medical researchers with the skills they need to critically read and interpret research using more advanced statistical methods. The statistical requirements of interpreting and publishing in medical journals, together with rapid changes in science and technology, increasingly demands an understanding of more complex and sophisticated analytic procedures. The text explains the application of statistical models to a wide variety of practical medical investigative studies and clinical trials. Regression methods are used to appropriately answer the key design questions posed and in so doing take due account of any effects of potentially influencing co-variables. It begins with a revision of basic statistical concepts, followed by a gentle introduction to the principles of statistical modelling. The various methods of modelling are covered in a non-technical manner so that the principles can be more easily applied in everyday practice. A chapter contrasting regression modelling with a regression tree approach is included. The emphasis is on the understanding and the application of concepts and methods. Data drawn from published studies are used to exemplify statistical concepts throughout. Regression Methods for Medical Research is especially designed for clinicians, public health and environmental health professionals, para-medical research professionals, scientists, laboratory-based researchers and students.
Praise for the Second Edition «All statistics students and teachers will find in this book a friendly and intelligentguide to . . . applied statistics in practice.» —Journal of Applied Statistics «. . . a very engaging and valuable book for all who use statistics in any setting.» —CHOICE «. . . a concise guide to the basics of statistics, replete with examples . . . a valuablereference for more advanced statisticians as well.» —MAA Reviews Now in its Third Edition, the highly readable Common Errors in Statistics (and How to Avoid Them) continues to serve as a thorough and straightforward discussion of basic statistical methods, presentations, approaches, and modeling techniques. Further enriched with new examples and counterexamples from the latest research as well as added coverage of relevant topics, this new edition of the benchmark book addresses popular mistakes often made in data collection and provides an indispensable guide to accurate statistical analysis and reporting. The authors' emphasis on careful practice, combined with a focus on the development of solutions, reveals the true value of statistics when applied correctly in any area of research. The Third Edition has been considerably expanded and revised to include: A new chapter on data quality assessment A new chapter on correlated data An expanded chapter on data analysis covering categorical and ordinal data, continuous measurements, and time-to-event data, including sections on factorial and crossover designs Revamped exercises with a stronger emphasis on solutions An extended chapter on report preparation New sections on factor analysis as well as Poisson and negative binomial regression Providing valuable, up-to-date information in the same user-friendly format as its predecessor, Common Errors in Statistics (and How to Avoid Them), Third Edition is an excellent book for students and professionals in industry, government, medicine, and the social sciences.
Research Writing in Dentistry provides you with a uniquely practical guide to selecting, designing, and writing up a research project. Of particular use to the dental student, both pre- and post-doctoral, this is a no-nonsense guide that presents concrete advice and information that can be absorbed quickly and effectively. By asking simple questions, this useful resource enables you to develop, analyze and present a program of research work. It begins with the basic principles of research: what it is and how to select a topic and plan a program. It then moves on to discuss study design, methods and materials, presenting results and undertaking a literature review. It concludes with a section on basic statistics and analysis. Precepts and guidance are illustrated throughout with examples from dentistry.