Agriculture in Tigray is characterized by small scale subsistence rainfed farming with low productivity emanated from poor resource base, high spatial and temporal variability of rainfall; and severe environmental degradation that resulted in high level of food insecurity in the region. The regional government of Tigray has designed an integrated food security program to improve agricultural productivity and tackle the prevailing food insecurity. Construction of household rainwater harvesting ponds was one of the interventions designed to address the problem of low productivity and enhance household food security. However, construction of household ponds and utilization of the stored water has faced challenges that hampered the intervention from fully achieving its intended objectives. This book,therefore, examines the contribution and challenges of adopting household rainwater harvesting ponds in Kilte Awolaelo woreda, Eastern Tigray. Possible suggestions are also made for further consideration which will assist implementers during introduction of new technology.
Traditional water harvesting practices are commonly implemented in Ethiopia. Improved techniques were introduced to the country in 2002. Analyzing determinants, alternative structures and farmers'' attitude towards the adoption of these technologies is paramount important. Hence, the study was conducted using assessment methodologies on trapezoidal ponds using purposively selected household respondents at individual level. This book, therefore, gives insight for researchers, economists, sociologists, anthropologists, planners, and other social workers for providing knowledge on water harvesting practices. Moreover, understanding of indigenous knowledge and scientific knowledge of farmers and researchers respectively enable to identify easily determinants that influence the adoption of such interventions in the study area for further investigation how to collect, harvest, store and utilize flood and rain water harvesting wisely for multipurpose advantages.
This study assesses the impacts of rainwater harvesting technology adopted on household income and employment generation in three districts in the Central Rift Valley of Oromiya Regional State of Ethiopia. Results are based on data collected from a survey of 300 household stratified into those with rain water harvesting structures and those without from which equal number of sample households were drawn randomly. Tobit model was used to estimate impacts of RWHT on household income and employment of hired laborers. The results indicate that among the variables used in the model, the variables that are significant in explaining the household income and employment generation are, availability of farmers’ active labor force, household perception ,leadership status ,number of rain water harvesting structures owned, total land holding, and off-farm income activities availability.
Rainwater harvesting has been the focus of debate in the recent years, many have welcomed the discussion for adoption of rainwater harvesting for domestic use in developing countries, but despite the discussions the adoption process has been minimal and in scattered households. This study sought to examine factors that influence the adoption of Rainwater Harvesting (RWH) Technology for domestic use by looking at socioeconomic economic factors that influence adoption of RWH. Various socioeconomic factors were observed to hinder adoption of rainwater harvesting technology for domestic use, the study concludes by recommending deliberate efforts to be undertaken to improve on adopting of rainwater harvesting technology for domestic use.
This book discusses the rainwater harvesting potential in Bangladesh focusing on the irrigation water management and urban water management. Long term rainfall data of all the meteorological stations of the country have been analyzed. Due to possible climate change impact, potential of rainwater harvesting has been analyzed in eight hydrological regions of the country. At the same time irrigation water management and urban water management from rainwater in different regions have been discussed.
Precipitation is the major water source for agricultural production in the Central Rift valley of Ethiopia. Limited and erratic precipitation often results in low crop yields and sometimes in total crop failure. In recent years, rainwater harvesting was promoted to overcome the shortage of water for agricultural and domestic uses. Implementation of rainwater harvesting was shown to have improved drinking water problem to a certain extent, and is being adopted to improve crop production. Moreover it is promoted to adjust agricultural structure to increase farm’s income and improve living environment. Rainwater harvesting has great potential to achieve sustainable agriculture in study areas.
Dhanbad is one of the water scarce cities in India. Depending on precipitation intensity, rainwater constitutes a potential source of drinking water. Rainwater harvesting is the technology where surface runoff is effectively collected and stored. Harvested rainwater canthen be used for drinking or for ground water recharge. Unless a proper water storage method is adopted, the rainwater harvesting may not be effective. This paper deals with a case study of rain water harvesting method adopted in Dhanbad city of Jharkhand state
Utilization of rainwater harvesting technology is not only an alternative for the seasonally speckled rain-fed agriculture of Ethiopia but also a mandatory as the country’s economy is highly dependent on subsistence farming. Especially in areas like central highlands of the country where the soil is degraded and agricultural rain is in small supply with unexpected appearance; utilization of those technologies which retain water during the plenty time and use them in dry periods through irrigation is wises’ choice. The positive impacts of utilization of these technologies in small holder farmers’ livelihood and income is clearly seen in the study area though the technology utilization has been fenced by many constraints. Accordingly, if the proper intervention of such constraints is devised and some best experiences are adapted to the area, the fruitfulness of the technology is unquestionable.
To reconcile its scarce water resources with the ever-increasing demand for freshwater, the South African government continues to explore and investigate various demand management and water supply options. Thus, the Rainwater HArvesting Decision Support System (RHADESS) was developed to facilitate the integration of rainwater harvesting (RWH) in the management and development of the country’s water resources at the quaternary catchment scale (about 500 sqm). Using biophysical and socioeconomic datasets, RHADESS assesses the RWH footprint of any given area of South Africa. Once the footprint is determined, the ecohydrological impact of RWH as reduction in river flow is established for different levels of adoption. Finally, RHADESS calculates the area of land required for a household to achieve food security when RWH is implemented. The decision support system was tested in two quaternary catchments, semi-arid C52A and humid V13D.
This study assesses the determinants of households’ adoption of rainwater harvesting Technology, rate of adopted RWHT use and impacts on farm income increment and employment generation for farmers of study areas of three districts in the Central Rift Valley of Oromia Regional State of Ethiopia. Results are based on data collected from a survey of 300 households in 2007. Households were stratified into those with rain water harvesting structures and those without, from which equal number of sample households was drawn. Descriptive statistics and econometric methods were used for data analysis of qualitative information supplemented by the econometric results.
Water is the most widely distributed substance on our planet and it plays a vital role in both environment and human life. Global freshwater consumption rose six-fold between 2000-2010, more than twice the rate of population growth. According to United Nations, if the present trend continues, two out of every three people on earth will live in water stressed condition that is whose consumption exceeds 10% of total supply. There is thus an urgent need to harness and conserve the water through suitable technical interventions. Rainwater harvesting is an old technology, which is gaining popularity to meet the water scarcity at a few places. There is, however, a need to popularize, replicate and mainstream the rainwater harvesting to ameliorate the water scarcity situation in different parts of the world. Keeping in the view the effective use of rainwater, present study is conducted at College of Technology, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India to test the feasibility of rainwater harvesting through roof-top of buildings and surface flow for different domestic uses and groundwater recharge.
The project harnessed the potential of house rooftops as rainwater harvesters for household use, principally as drinking water. It likewise assessed the system’s technical soundness, environmental dimensions, economic feasibility as well as its social and political acceptability. Technically, the rainwater harvesting system consisting of rooftops, gutters, down spouts, filter and storage tank is capable of collecting/impounding rainwater to supply and support the drinking water needs of 8-12 members of the family throughout the six-month dry period (January-June) of the year. In terms of rainwater microbiological quality, total coliforms and Escherichia coli were of low concentrations (i,e., less than 1.1 MPN/100 ml) meeting the allowable limits set by the Philippine National Standards for Drinking Water (PNSDW). Other quality and aesthetic characteristics of collected/stored rainwater such as the presence of inorganic and organic substances through total dissolved solids as well as its total hardness adequately met the PNSDW values indicating potability of the harvested rainwater.
Drought is frequent in semi-arid rainfed crop production areas of Ethiopia. Although a number of water conservation technologies were introduced, they were failed to be adopt for a number reasons. Most are not impractical to the small holder and subsistence farmers. A soil tillage type, which is used as small scale infield rainwater harvesting and known by the name infield rainwater harvesting (IRWH) is found to be promising and subjected to study the benefit of water harvesting in three semi-arid ectopes of Ethiopia. In this book an ecotope represents an area with homogenous soil type, climate and surface land slope. The IRWH showed an encouraging maize yield improvement in semi-arid water scarce areas of South Africa. It increased maize and sunflower yields by 30-50% on different locations within South Africa compared to the conventional tillage practice. The technology reportedly described to be promising especially, on soil types susceptible to crusting and that enhances surface runoff. It uses the soil’s surface crusting property as an advantage to increase the proportion of the rainfall that will be turned to surface runoff
Rainwater is one of the purest forms of water and is generally regarded to be safe for drinking. But its regular use for drinking purpose and the use of improperly harvested rainwater should be done with caution. The book unravels the possible health problems that may arise while drinking rainwater regularly. Other major highlights of the book include sections on types of water resources, rainwater harvesting,water sampling methods, procedures for water analysis and health problems due to varying nitrate/nitrite concentrations & lack of essential minerals in rain water.