Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 189. Climate Dynamics: Why Does Climate Vary? presents the major climate phenomena within the climate system to underscore the potency of dynamics in giving rise to climate change and variability. These phenomena include deep convection over the Indo-Pacific warm pool and its planetary-scale organization: the Madden-Julian Oscillation, the monsoons, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and the low-frequency variability of extratropical circulations. The volume also has a chapter focusing on the discussion of the causes of the recent melting of Arctic sea ice and a chapter devoted to the discussion of the causes of recent changes in the frequency and intensity of tropical cyclones. On each topic, the basic material of climate dynamics is covered to aid the understanding of the forefront research, making the volume accessible to a broad spectrum of readers. The volume highlights include Diabatic and nonlinear aspects of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation Causes of sea ice melting in the Arctic Impact of global warming on tropical cyclone activity Origins of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation Causes of climate variability of Asian monsoons The volume will be of particular interest to graduate students and young researchers in atmospheric and oceanic sciences and related disciplines such as geology and geography. The book will also be a good read for those who have a more general interest in the Earth's climate and why it varies.
European Climate Vulnerabilities and Adaptation: A Spatial Planning Perspective analyses the impacts climate change might have on regions and their local economies. Regions clearly differ in view of the complex patterns of climate change impact, but also regarding the given vulnerability and coping capacity. Impacts of climate change can have a marked effect on the functioning of regions and sectors of the society, if not properly addressed. Readiness to adapt to the impacts and lasting changes counts towards vulnerability of the regions. The book builds upon the findings of a project conducted under the European observation network for territorial development and cohesion (ESPON), The ESPON Climate project. Following the stipulations of the ESPON programme and the tender for this project the territorial focus is the raison d’être and methodological core of the project as a whole and its various research actions: The outcomes of each action will be focused on what impacts global climate change will have for the different European regions and how the regions can cope with the projected impacts in order to become less vulnerable to climate change. This book: Provides a comprehensive analysis of climate change impacts on 29 European regions and their local economies Takes an interdisciplinary approach dealing with the physical, social, economic, environmental, cultural and institutional aspects of climate change vulnerability and the consequences for spatial planning Builds on the findings of the ESPON Climate project with a policy focused approach Is in full colour throughout with a broad range of case studies
This fifth edition of the essential history of world population is updated with the most recent and significant scholarship on the topic. Reworked sections analyze the impact of environmental and climate change, discuss declining fertility in developing nations, and track the continuing impact of HIV-AIDS. Central themes updated and revised to take account of new scholarship Includes new sections on theories of migration in pre-history Expands discussion of low fertility rates in developing Asian and Latin American countries Fuller coverage of population and environmental change, including the effects of climate change Bibliographic updates include weblinks to key scientific journals
Taking a global perspective, this book provides a concise overview of drylands, including their physical, biological, temporal, and human components. Examines the physical systems occurring in desert environments, including climate, hydrology, past and present lakes, weathering, hillslopes, geomorphic surfaces, water as a geomorphic agent, and aeolian processes Offers an accessible introduction to the physical, biological, temporal, and human components of drylands Investigates the nature, environmental requirements, and essential geomorphic roles of plants and animals in this stressful biological environment Highlights the impact of human population growth on climate, desertification, water resources, and dust storm activity Includes an examination of surface/atmosphere interactions and the impact of ENSO events.
In this ready reference, a global team of experts comprehensively cover molecular and cell biology-based approaches to the impact of increasing global temperatures on crop productivity. The work is divided into four parts. Following an introduction to the general challenges for agriculture around the globe due to climate change, part two discusses how the resulting increase of abiotic stress factors can be dealt with. The third part then outlines the different strategies and approaches to address the challenge of climate change, and the whole is rounded off by a number of specific examples of improvements to crop productivity. With its forward-looking focus on solutions, this book is an indispensable help for the agro-industry, policy makers and academia.
Climate Forcing of Geological Hazards provides a valuable new insight into how climate change is able to influence, modulate and trigger geological and geomorphological phenomena, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions and landslides; ultimately increasing the risk of natural hazards in a warmer world. Taken together, the chapters build a panorama of a field of research that is only now becoming recognized as important in the context of the likely impacts and implications of anthropogenic climate change. The observations, analyses and interpretations presented in the volume reinforce the idea that a changing climate does not simply involve the atmosphere and hydrosphere, but also elicits potentially hazardous responses from the solid Earth, or geosphere. Climate Forcing of Geological Hazards is targeted particularly at academics, graduate students and professionals with an interest in environmental change and natural hazards. As such, we are hopeful that it will encourage further investigation of those mechanisms by which contemporary climate change may drive potentially hazardous geological and geomorphological activity, and of the future ramifications for society and economy.
This book includes two parts. The first part is more theoretical and general, and it covers fundamental principles: geospatial climate data measurement; spatial analysis, mapping and climate; geographical information, remote sensing and climatology; and geographical information for initialisation of forecasting and climate models. The second part describes geographical information used in various climate applications of importance today, related to risk: urban climate; air pollution; hydrological problems linked to climatology; forest fires.
The definitive guide to how institutional investors should approach the risks and opportunities associated with climate change Environmental Alpha provides institutional investors with the comprehensive framework they need to assess the risks and investment opportunities tied to climate change. Climate change will present institutional investors with some of the most important risks and opportunities they will face for generations to come. Climate change has the potential to affect many sectors in radically different degrees over time, and institutional investors need to have a thorough understanding of the multi-dimensional risks and opportunities that could influence nearly every investment in their portfolios. This volume is composed of contributions by leading experts in environmental investment, moving beyond the theoretical or academic nature of much of the current discussion on the topic to provide you with real-world insights into an emerging market. Examines the climate change-related drivers of returns (science, economics, policy, and technology) that make environmental alpha possible Explores fiduciary duty and climate change Contains in-depth explanations of each of the major categories of environmental investing and examines related environmental alpha opportunities Discusses practical implementation issues Presents real-world case studies and examples Climate change will be one of the most important investment themes of the next twenty years; the related environmental investment opportunities will provide institutional investors with some of the greatest «alpha» opportunities for years to come. This book will put you in a better position to assess and access these opportunities.
Global climate change creates new challenges in particular for cities and regions. As centres of human activity they are especially vulnerable to climate change impacts. Adapting to a changing climate requires dealing with multiple uncertainties and complexity in order to allow proactive action. Therefore, cities and regions around the globe face the challenge of exploring flexible and innovative forms of governance which have to address specific local or regional vulnerabilities and build capacity to accommodate future change. This raises questions about the roles of stakeholders, the involvement of citizens, the composition and use of formal and informal instruments as well as the implementation of different forms of organization and regulation at the local and regional level. This book provides case studies from cities and regions all around the world. It analyses climate change adaptation from a perspective of organizing, administering and implementing local and regional adaptation strategies and measures. It looks into actors, actor-constellations, institutions and networks of climate adaptation. And, it provides the reader with knowledge about good practices and experiences to be transferred for solving adaptation challenges in cities and regions around the globe.