The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 80% of the world’s population presently uses herbal medicine for some aspect of primary health care. The use of, and search for, drugs and dietary supplements derived from plants have accelerated. In the recent years, the interest in medicinal plants has increased in a great deal. People have also taken this matter seriously by conducting various researches on plant based medicine which produces no side effect. In continuation of our efforts in search of potential antimicrobial and antioxidant agent we have taken a new sepecies of Ipomoea cairica. The leaves and flower of this plant were screened for antimicrobial and antioxidant activity to develop better antimicrobial and antioxidant agent having no side-effect .
Local drug delivery has gained wide acceptance as an adjunct to mechanical debridement for the treatment of chronic periodontitis. A variety of delivery vehicles have been utilized for intrapocket administration of antimicrobial agents with variable success. Varnishes, which accomplish a reservoir of drug on the tooth surface are one of the recently developed vehicles used to deliver antimicrobial agent such as chlorhexidine, being utilized for the treatment of periodontitis. They allow application of a sufficient dose of antimicrobial agent over a longer period of time. So, varnishes seem to be an appealing vehicle for delivery of chlorhexidine (a gold standard anti-plaque agent) in periodontal milieu. From the results of present investigation, it can be concluded, within limitations of the study, that multiple applications of 1% chlorhexidine varnish have an added benefit over single application in treatment of chronic periodontitis.
Metallic silver in the form of silver nanoparticles has made a remarkable comeback as a potent antimicrobial agent. The most prominent nanoparticles for medical uses are nanosilver particles which are known for their high antimicrobial activity. Silver ion has been known as a metal ion that exhibit antimildew, antimicrobial and anti fungal properties for a long time. In particular, it is widely used as silver nitrate aqueous solution which has disinfecting and sterilizing actions. The use of silver nanoparticles is also important, as several pathogenic bacteria have developed resistance against various antibiotics. Hence, silver nanoparticles have emerged up with diverse medical applications. This book, therefore, provides information regarding the various synthesis and application methods of nanosilver. This book is useful to professionals and students from the field of Textiles, Medical and Garment industries.
Over the past few decades, steadily increasing drug resistance in the treatment of infectious disease pose a serious problem in antimicrobial therapy and necessitates continuing research into novel classes of antimicrobials. Schiff bases are associated with diverse biocidal activities probably by virtue of a toxophoric C = N linkage and the importance of 1, 3, 4–oxadiazole as antimicrobial agent revealed from literature prompted us to undertake the synthesis of few novel 1, 3, 4–oxadiazole for evaluation as antimicrobial agents. A novel series of Schiff bases containing imidazo[2,1-b]-1,3,4-oxadiazole ring were synthesized and their antimicrobial activity was evaluated using disc diffusion method. Antimicrobial potential of synthesized compounds were evaluated against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. Majority of the compounds were found to possess a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities against all the pathogenic microorganisms tested including Pseudomonas fluorescens and Candida albicans responsible for nosocomial infection.
Extracts of plants are more safe and their toxicity is a not a big problem, hence they could be exploited as nutritional supplements and antioxidant additives. The present study revealed that the consumption of the extracts of Atropa Belladonna and Matricaria Chamomilla medicinal plants could exert a number of valuable effects by virtue of their effective antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. Both the plants tested during the present work showed good antioxidant as well as antimicrobial activity, so these medicinal plants can be potential new sources of natural antioxidants.
Lectins are proteins or glycoproteins of non immune origin which have a wide distribution in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their medicinal role extends from simple antimicrobial action to anti- tumour properties.In view of the advancement in understanding the potential medicinal role of the plant lectins, a lectin from the leaves of Prunella vulgaris was isolated, purified, partially characterized and its antimicrobial activity evaluated. The lectin is specific for galactose and N-acetyl-galactosamine The molecular weight of the lectin as determined by SDS-PAGE was 32500 Da and that estimated from Sephadex G-100 gel filtration column was 65000 Da indicating that the purified lectin is a homodimer. The purified lectin also shows a significant antimicrobial activity against the infectious agents of some common diseases such as Salmonella typhi, Klebseilla pnuemonea and Escherhia coli.
Actinomycetes have provided important bioactive compounds of high commercial value and continue to be routinely screened for new bioactive substances. There is an alarming scarcity of new antibiotics currently under development in the pharmaceutical industry. The present study highlights the isolation and characterization of haloalkaliphilic actinomycetes with respect to their antimicrobial potential. A total of 14 halophilic, alkaliphilic and haloalkaliphilic actinomycete isolates were isolated from the saline soil samples collected from the saline desert of Kutch under varied conditions of salt (0-20% w/v NaCl) and pH (7-10). The organisms belonged to the genus Streptomyces with fluffy filamentous aerial mycelia. Their ability to secrete antimicrobial metabolites was tested against a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative test cultures. Three isolates H3, H4 (Halophilic) and HA5 (haloalkaliphilic) emerged as the potent antimicrobial producers. They produced the antimicrobial agent against Micrococcus in liquid culture after 15 days of incubation under shaking conditions. The compound was extracted with ethyl acetate and bioautographed against Micrococcus.
The book is an attempt to study the synthesis of heterocycles with novel chromophores as potential antimicrobial agents. The phthalazine based scaffolds having different heterocyclic chromophores includes diversity with five groups, phthalazine-methoxyacrylates, phthalazine-oxadiazoles, phthalazine-isoxazoles, phthalazine-methoxyacrylate-isoxazoles and phthalazine-triazolothiadiazole and triazolothiadiazines. Further, 114 compounds were tested for antimicrobial activity against Esherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. The thiazole and pyridine substituted derivatives shows better activity. All the compounds were thoroughly characterized with all possible physic-chemical techniques.
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) occur naturally in meat. These bacteria produce antimicrobial substances such as bacteriocin. The present study is focused on isolation of LAB from meat. Bacteriocin is extracted from the isolated Lactococcus lactis and the antibacterial activity is evaluated against bacterial pathogens (E. coli and S. gallinarum) of poultry origin. The antimicrobial properties varies when different parameters are applied. The antimicrobial properties changes with the change in the pH, temperature, change in the concentration of ethanol, methanol, chloroform and SDS. When bacteriocin is treated with enzyme, it does not show any activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is also measured. This book shows the potential application of lactic acid bacteria in the poultry industry to protect the flocks against potential pathogens.
Cyanobacterial secondary metabolites have diverse antagonistic activity that lead to disintegration of algal, bacterial and fungal growth. This work majorly focuses on the ability of cyanobacteria to be used as an antifungal agent, since a long time the antifungal drugs are chemical based, they are not only having problems of being hazardous when overused but also has led to the increase in the resistant power of many disease causing fungi. Cyanobacteria have a potential to become the leading antimicrobial drug as it has various advantages over the conventional chemical drugs. However, intensive research required to channelize the overall potential of cyanobacteria to be used as an antifungal drug to combat different diseases caused by fungi.
The emergence of resistance to existing antimicrobial agents is a pressing concern for human health. The effort in this regard has resulted in the identification of novel molecules which can resist pathogens developing resistance. One group of compounds explored for such novel properties are the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). AMPs are an essential part of innate immunity that evolved in most living organisms over 2.6 billion years to combat microbial challenge. The therapeutic potential of AMPs is attributed to their membrane lytic properties. The peptides have demonstrated their ability to kill rapidly a broad spectrum of microorganisms including multidrug resistant bacteria, fungi and viruses. This book intends to make the reader aware of the synthetic AMPs and the possibilities that these compounds carry for discovery of newer and more effective antimicrobial agents.
Plants are reservoir of effective chemotherapeutics and can provide valuable sources of natural antimicrobials. Bacteriocins are natural antimicrobial peptides with interesting potential applications in human health and exhibit a bactericidal mode of action against related as well as unrelated microorganisms. In present study Bougainvillea spectabilis and bacteriocins susceptibility against Salmonella typhi was evaluated. Bougainvillea spectabilis stem, leaves and flowers were extracted in organic solvents through soxhlet and rotary evaporator. For the bacteriocins screening, Lactococcus lactis was isolated from milk samples. Disc diffusion method was used to determine the antimicrobial activity. The results revealed that both the Bougainvillea spectabilis and bacteriocins had antimicrobial activity against S. typhi. The ethanolic and methanolic extracts of flowers and leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis were more active against S. typhi. B. spectabilis and bacteriocins inhibition activity proved them as the alternative antimicrobial agents against human pathogens.
In this book B. cereus was used as a mosquito larvicidal agent against the major vector mosquitoes such as Cx. quinquefasciatus, An. Stephensi and Ae. aegypti and recorded significant mosquito larval controlling efficiency. The present investigation also detailed the anatomical dislocation or disintegration of the cells of the gut regions of An. Stephensi. Their rapid potential in assassination often providing B. cereus, an eligibility to become the potential larvicidal, eco-friendly agent in the mosquito born disease control programme.
The marine environment is a habitat for many unique microorganisms, which produce biologically active compounds (“bioactives”) to adapt to particular environmental conditions. Actinomycetes are a family of bacteria that produce over two thirds of the clinically useful antibiotics of natural origin. The present study deals with production and extraction of antimicrobial metabolites from haloalkaliphilic actinomycetes from the Gulf of Khambhat situated in the Bhavnagar District of the Gujarat. Out of 40 isolates, isolate GhM-HA-6 was found to secrete potential antimicrobial metabolites against many Gram-positive bacteria like M.leuteus, S.flexneri, S.aureus and S.epidermis. It produced the antibiotic optimally during stationary phase with pH 9 and 10% w/v NaCl in starch broth. The crude antimicrobial substance was isolated by using various solvent systems but giving the best separation with chloroform and methanol-ethyl acetate. The study reveals that the haloalkaliphilic actinomycete GhM-HA-6 produces broad spectrum of antimicrobial metabolites which can be exploited for biotechnological potential and improve as promising sources for new antimicrobial compound.