Kidney has long been reported to be a target in patients with HIV infection. Presently HIV related kidney disease is among the commonest cause of kidney disorder globally. Kidney diseases have been reported at various stages of HIV infection. However, early studies were mainly on patients with advanced HIV infection thus kidney diseases were then thought to occur only in advanced AIDS. This book "KIDNEY and HIV infection" highlights the frequency of kidney disorder among the HIV population, including the epidemiological, clinical and laboratory characteristics of these patients. Also the relationship between the degree of immunosuppression as detected by the CD4 cell count and the severity of kidney disease as detected by the impairment in kidney function is detailed in this book. This is an indept scientific study carried out in a developing country with all its antecedent financial and political challenges. The book is recommended for research fellows, medical practitioners, epidemiologists, undergraduate and postgraduate students with interest in nephrology and infectious diseases.This book is also recommended for your institution and personal library.
Hiv is a major risk factor for kidney disease especially among children of African descent. Also, art’s and other drugs used in the treatment of HIV-infected children are known to be potentially nephrotoxic, despite their beneficial effects. This highlights the need for a precise assessment of kidney function to enable early interventions. However, serum creatinine and other common methods of evaluation of kidney function have major limitations especially in HIV-infected children. Several studies have shown serum cystatin C to be superior to creatinine as a marker of kidney damage, promptly detecting early stages of ckd so that therapeutic measures can be instituted to halt or slow their progression. Hence, as in this study, utilisation of such a marker is of utmost importance in view of the peculiarity of the resource-poor African setting where facilities for long term management of esrd in children are scarce and unaffordable. In addition, there is paucity of data on kidney function of Hiv-infected children in this sub-region. This research has added to the pool of information that will enable the development of clinical practice guidelines on assessment and management of ckd
This study examines the risk factors related to HIV infection among 400 female sex workers (FSWs) aged 16-57 years in Vinh Long Proovince, Viet Nam. It uses secondary data from a cross-sectional study about knowledge, attitude, beliefs, and practice on HIV/AIDS. The main purpose is to determine the impacts of risk factors on HIV infection. Binary logistic regression showed perception of risk, perceived pay value, and using drug were significantly associated with HIV infection. FSWs who used drug were 32 times more likely to be infected with HIV than their counterparts. FSWs who reported that they had high risk of HIV infection were more likely to be infected with HIV than the ones reported that they had low risk or no risk of HIV infection. In addition, low income FSWs were more likely to be infected with HIV than high income FSWs. The findings suggested setting up a Drop-in-Center for FSWs who come to share both difficulties and experiences to protect themselves from HIV infection. Furthermore, strengthening the peer educators’ channels to provide HIV/AIDS information, knowledge, living skills and condom, needles and syringes directly to FSWs is strongly recommended.
In the Sub Saharan Africa and on global scope, Uganda has an outstanding account of HIV/AIDS infection. HIV/AIDS is a chronic infection which requires huge resources in its management, besides knowledge on the rate of HIV infection transition from one stage to another is scanty. This paper sheds light on the estimates of HIV infection progression within resource limited settings and its co-factors among children. The paper is framed in lifecourse theoretical perspective to appraise the chronological effect of demographic and socioeconomic factors on the lifecourse of HIV-AIDS. Using Kaplan Meier and Cox proportional hazard model as methods of analysis, the paper indicates that, the duration of exposure to HIV infection contributed in each stage decreases with progressive amplification in the infection, increasingly short expectation of life once a child progresses from asymptomatic stage. Thus, to optimize survival time on HIV infection lifecourse, HIV/AIDS care and treatment should strive to maintain HIV infection within asymptomatic levels yet initiating treatment on the earliest time possible.
Injecting drug users (IDUs) are at risk of infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). Independently, each of these viruses is a serious threat to health, with HIV ravaging the body’s immune system, and HCV causing cirrhosis, liver cancer and liver failure. Furthermore, co-infection with HIV/HCV weakens the response to antiretroviral therapy in HIV patients. IDUs with HIV/HCV co-infection are at a 20 times higher risk of having liver-related morbidity and mortality than IDUs with HIV alone. In Viet Nam, studies to ascertain the prevalence of HIV in IDUs have found high rates, but little is known about their HCV status. Therefore this book provides IDU HIV/HCV co-infection rates, in addition to the prevalence of HCV and HIV, and identifies factors associated with these viruses among 455 IDUs at four drug treatment centers in Ha Noi, Viet Nam. The availability of information about HIV/HCV co-infection in this vulnerable group will be of benefit to investigators and programmers addressing the problems of identifying and providing more appropriate treatment to HIV-positive IDUs.
For the past four decades, HIV/AIDS epidemic has grown and become generalized in most of sub-Saharan Africa countries, cohabiting couples contribute significant fraction of transmission. However, majority of them do not know their HIV sero-status or test by proxy. We promoted uptake of HIV couple counselling and testing services in northern Tanzania to understand prevelance and determinants of HIV infection among couples presenting for services. We found that prevalence of HIV discordance was high in Moshi and Arusha towns; and positively associated with age and age difference between partners. In such unions, the risk of HIV infection to the uninfected partner increases. We recommend promotion of couples counselling and testing services by using different media to as strategy to maximize access of ART for prevention purposes among discordant couples.
Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common opportunistic infection among HIV-infected and one of the major global public health challenges of this era.In Nepal, the burden of TB among HIV infected had been seen range from 10% - 20 % mainly the people of productive age. This study was designed to assess the public health burden of opportunistic TB infection among HIV infected. Information was collected from 144 HIV/AIDS patient who had visited the ART clinic of Bharatpur Hospital, Chitwan during the period of 10th May to 30th May 2012. Study showed the 9.7 percent prevalence of opportunistic TB among HIV infected and extra pulmonary TB rate was higher. The status of TB co-infection during the diagnosed HIV infected period was 28.4 percent including prevalence TB cases. The common health problems faced by HIV-TB co-infected were weakness , fever, weight loss and cough. Having history of TB infection before HIV diagnosis were at 4.8 times greater risk of getting opportunistic TB. Access to health related local non government organization in the community had a great impact for significantly low risk of HIV-TB co-infection.
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. With the advent of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) pandemic, the problem of TB has got worse. The incidence of TB in patients with HIV infection / AIDS is nearly 500 times higher than in the general population. In HIV infected patients tuberculosis may frequently present in sites other than the lungs, lymphadenitis being the most common but it may be in the bone, liver, or in almost any organ of the body. Disseminated tuberculosis (DTB) is also more common in patients with HIV infection. Diagnosis of TB is also difficult in patients with HIV infection as rate of sputum AFB positivity is less and chest X-Ray changes are also atypical. The prevalence of extrapulmonary TB is also higher in patients with HIV infection were obtaining clinical samples is difficult. The present work is done to evaluate role of Mycobacteremia, which is a simple and convenient test done by blood culture using MB\Bact method, in diagnosis of tuberculosis with or without HIV infection.
Human Herpes Virus Type 4 or Epstein Barr Virus is known to exert its oncogenic potential in altered immune states, HIV/AIDS being one of them. The HHV4 life cycle involves the continuous production of various latent and lytic proteins. In HIV infection antibodies to non HIV micro-organisms is erratic because the entire immune system is trying to combat the rapidly replicating HIV. HIV associated tumors appear in HIV clinical stage 3. Literature has not been able to demonstrate, in an HIV positive population, the association of HIV clinical staging with EBV antibodies and EBV infection clinical stages . Virologists and clinicians who are interested in the interaction of HIV and other oncogenic viruses will find this a valuable addition to their knowledge.
The convergent distribution of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and helminth infections has led to the suggestion that infection with helminths exacerbates the HIV epidemic in developing countries. A large body of suggestive evidence in support of this hypothesis has been accumulated in many countries over the past two decades. Although 57% of the South African population lives in poverty and carry the highest burden of both HIV and helmith infection, the disease interactions are under-researched in South Africa. This book details work undertaken in Khayelitsha, an informal settlement in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, where both HIV and intestinal helminth infections are highly prevalent. The immune profile of adults who are either singly-or dually- infected with HIV and Ascaris lumbricoides and/or Trichuris trichuria, plus non-infected HIV negative controls, is described in relation to the ability to control HIV infection. Four different phenotypes that respond differently to helminth infection are described and immunological profile related to HIV pathogenesis analysed.
A mother who is HIV positive not only worries of her health but also of the risk of transmitting the infection to her child. Health care workers intervene to prevent infection during pregnancy and child birth. There after infection is only likely to occur with breastfeeding hence replacement feeding is preferred to prevent HIV infection amongst mothers. It's sustainability in economically constrained societies can lead to malnutrition. The results of the study carried out in Nairobi, Kenya reveal the nutrition status of breastfed and replacement fed infants. Though breastfeeding carries a risk of HIV infection it leads to better nutrition status in the children.
This book presents a critical understanding of two major types of widespread forms of infectious diseases, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The social, economic, cultural and political determinants affecting the health and well being of populations around the world, specifically Sub-Saharan Africa, in relation to tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS are addressed. In this book, the following has been detailed: An account of tuberculosis and HIV co-infection in Sub-Saharan Africa (Causative agent, condition symptoms, history and epidemiology of tuberculosis; setting profile, policy and public health priorities; treatment or intervention options and management of TB/HIV co-infection); promotion of the infant formula use to prevent HIV transmission from mother to child in Western Africa and assessment of the use of condom to prevent HIV transmission within the East African community.
The study intended to establish the level of HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes among the people with disabilities (PWDs) in North Kamagak location,South Rachuonyo District, Nyanza province (Kenya). The objectives of the study were to establish the level of knowledge of HIV/AIDS infection and preventive measures among PWDs, to find out how social stigma and discrimination towards PWDs hinders their accessibility to HIV/AIDS infection and preventive measures and to determine PWDs’ attitudes towards HIV/AIDS preventive measures. The findings reveal that level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS preventive measures among the PWDs is still low. There is evidence of social stigma and discrimination that makes the PWDs to shy off from HIV/AIDS infection and prevention delivery points thus most are unable to get access to corrective HIV/AIDS information and methods of prevention. Most of the respondents were quite informed that knowing one’s sero-status is a significant step towards the fight against HIV/AIDS, however a significant number of them had not been tested due to social stigma and discrimination in case they tested HIV positive.
Human immunodeficiency virus related kidney disease is one of the leading causes of death and affects predominantly people of black descen. A cohort study was carried out at the Nylon District Hospital Douala, Cameroon to investigate the Kidney function trends amongst HIV seropositive individuals. Kidney function tests like serum urea, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, proteinuria and urine chemistry was measured amongst 329 participants amongst whom 30.4% were HIV negative and 69.6% were HIV positive. The age range of the study population was 18 to 60 years. There were 94(28.6%) males and 235 (71.5%) females. The percentage of HIV seropositivity was higher in females than in males. Although, Serum creatinine, creatinine clearance and proteinuria were significantly higher in the control group than in the HIV infected subjects, these values were not indicative of renal pathology. Considering only HIV positive individuals the mean serum creatinine was significantly higher in the Antiretoviral treatment (ART) naive group when compared to those who were already on ART. These findings indicate that renal function is not affected by the seropositivity status of individuals.