Since non-classical crystallization pathways were revealed, our picture of nucleation and crystal growth became in the last year quite confusing and ramified: we are confronted with the existence of liquid phases of amorphous calcium carbonate, polymer-induced liquid precursor and, last but not least, pre-nucleation clusters. This contribution explores: (a) The symmetry-breaking phase-selection of calcium carbonate, which is based upon a subtle interplay of interlinked equilibria and is ultimately ascribed to the weak parity violation energy difference. (b) A morphogenetic employment of mesocrystallinity: the inter-crystalline minority constituent of a mesocrystal, e.g. occluded protein or polymeric additives, experiences compression-molding which can be employed for the preparation of nanotubes of various materials, e.g. calcium carbonate or cadmium sulfide. (c) The existence of a liquid intermediate phase during metal carbonate formation. By a diffusion-controlled and contract-free experimental setup, unequivocally evidence for the existence of nonclassical liquid intermediates, which precede the crystalline phase of bivalent carbonates at near-neutral conditions, is provided.
A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementation of vitamin D3, papaya leaf meal (PLM) and pineapple skin meal (PSM) for 7 days prior to slaughter on meat quality of spent layer chickens. In Experiment 1, based on Completely Randomized Design, 40 spent layer chickens (ISA Brown) were allotted to control (n=10), vitamin D3 (n=10), papaya leaf meal (n=10) and pineapple skin meal (n=10) treatments. The combined effects of vitamin D3 and PLM were also examined in this study based on 2?4 factorial design of which, 80 ISA Brown spent layer hens were equally divided to PLM with vitamin D3 (n=40) and PLM without vitamin D3 (n=40). Ten birds of each of the main treatment group (PLM with vitamin D3 and PLM without vitamin D3) were then subjected to the levels of 0%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% of PLM. Meat quality analysis (shear force values, drip loss, cooking loss and colour) were carried out for both experiments. In Experiment 1, both vitamin D3 and PLM have significantly improved tenderness (reduced shear force values), drip loss, cooking loss and colour. However, the supplementation of PSM has resulted in no significant effect on all of the analysed meat quality traits. Meanwhile,
Vitamin D is the precursor of 1, 25 dihydroxy vitamin D3, the steroid hormone required for calcium absorption, bone development and growth in children. 90% of vitamin D is produced in the skin from the action of sunlight and remaining 10% is obtained from dietary sources. Vitamin D deficiency is major issue in Pakistan and in pregnancy it has been associated with adverse outcomes like pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus and preterm birth. Deficiency during infancy may lead to rickets in infants. This study was aimed to find level of vitamin D in relation with calcium in pregnancy and lactation. For the assessment of Vitamin D, blood samples of healthy, pregnant and lactating mothers were assessed with the help of ELISA. This book will highlight the status of vitamin D in pregnant and lactating women and their comparison with healthy women.
The present project was designed to study the prevalence of Vitamin D, calcium and phosphate in healthy females in Lahore. In this study 88 blood samples of healthy females were used to assay the concentration of Vitamin D, calcium and phosphate. ELISA was performed for the assessment of Vitamin D in the laboratory of LCWU. The calcium and phosphate were measured by using commercially available kits on chemistry analyzer. Statistically data was analyzed by using SPSS (version 13.0). The mean value of Vitamin D was 42.76 nmol ± 2.05. The mean of calcium was 8.78 mg/dl ± 0.06 and the mean of phosphate was 3.07 mg/dl ± 0.07 among the study group. To see the influence of lifestyle on the serum levels of vitamin D in healthy females, the data was divided into different lifestyle factors. On the basis of the age the data was stratified into two groups. Deficiency of vitamin D was also found in 23.86% females of study population. 24 (27.27%) young females showed the deficiency of calcium and in 21 (23.86%) healthy females the deficiency of phosphate was observed. Vitamin D was significantly and positively correlated with calcium and phosphate (r= 0.622 and r= 0.656 respectively).