Lycopene is highly unsaturated, open-chain carotenoid found abundantly in tomatoes. Research interests into properties & health benefits of lycopene have been growing, bringing attention to content of lycopene in food. The purpose of this work was to develop efficient & accurate protocol that can measure lycopene using HPLC, and establish relationship with Vis/NIR reflectance spectroscopy measurement. Accordingly, mobile phase composition ACN/MeOH (50:50, v/v)+ TEA 9 µM; extraction solvents hexane/acetone/ethanol (50:25:25, v/v/v); re-dissolving residue in THF, followed ACN/MeOH (15:30:55, v/v/v); flow rate 0.6 mL/min and ?detection 472 nm were showed most suitable for lycopene determination in tomato. This method has achieved best characteristic spectra profile with precision (RSD > 15), accuracy & recovery (? 81.7%) and sensitive detection limit (0.0156 ?g/mL) within separation of ~ 21 minutes. Finally, the established method was applied to selected tomato cultivars and a wide range of lycopene content 1.91 to 8.23 mg/100g was observed. Besides, although HPLC is most accepted method; Vis/NIR combined with multivariate techniques has showed potential for determining lycopene.
The important carotenoid in tomatoes i. e. lycopene having antioxidant capability has led to promising results in decreasing the risk of some illnesses and diseases. The tomato processing waste (pomace) is considered to be the potential raw material for production of natural lycopene. The purpose behind conventional solvent extraction method is a cheaper technology as compared to other modern technologies. It can be satisfactorily intended in the food systems as a functional ingredient. For the maximum recovery of lycopene from tomato pomace was carried out by selecting the suitable solvent system, temperature-time combination and feed to solvent ratio, i.e. Acetone: Ethyl acetate (1:1), 40 ?C/5 h and 1:30 (w/v). By using optimized solvent extraction process and had the lycopene content 611.105 mg/100 g, purity 81.319 %, refractive index 1.37604 and colour value 5.59 L*, 8.00 a*, 6.14 b*. There was 53.4 % reduction in the lycopene content after 60 days of storage at room temperature while at refrigerated condition, it was found safe with just 2.6 % reduction in lycopene content.
The aim of this study is to produce external standards for Z-lycopene induced by processing of tomatoes. The general goal of this thesis was to produce external standards for Z-lycopene isomers which occur in processed tomatoes. In order to reach this goal several questions needed to be answered: Are Z-lycopene isomers formed during processing of tomatoes? How can Z-lycopene isomers, formed during processing of tomatoes, be produced with high yield? Is it possible to collect the Z-lycopene isomers separately? How can the targeted isomers be obtained as a pure solid? What is the position of the Z-double bond of the Z-lycopene isomers? What is the extinction coefficient of the Z-lycopene isomers?
Lycopene is a natural pigment that imparts red color to tomato, guava, watermelon, and pink grapefruit. Lycopene acts by various mechanisms to protect body cells against oxidative damage, and thus, lycopene may play a preventive role in different kinds of chronic cancers and cardiovascular diseases. Tomatoes (especially deep-red fresh tomato fruits) and tomato products are considered the most important source of lycopene in many human diets . Therefore most of the research on lycopene focus on tomato and tomato products. The present study is to estimate the lycopene content from the fresh tomato fruit and processed tomato products .It is aimed at the comparison of lycopene content before and after processing of the tomatoes.
Lycopene is the carotenoid which gives tomatoes and other red fruits their characteristic colour. It is one of the most powerful antioxidants and singlet oxygen-quenching agents. Lycopene has been found to be of great medical importance, having various anticancer effects and it is able to ameliorate several other medical conditions. Lycopene had also been found to be very useful in the food industry where it is used as food additives, colourant and functional food. Lycopene, has been the focus of considerable attention for its potential health benefits (Shi et al. 2002; Rao and Rao, 2004). Results from epidemiological and experimental studies support the view that lycopene may provide protection against cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer (Giovannucci, 2005; Omoni and Aluko, 2005). Lavecchia and Zuorro (2011) reported the growing demand for natural lycopene and therefore considerable interest has been directed to the possibility of obtaining lycopene from tomato processing waste. This growing demand for natural lycopene has led us to device an alternative means for the extraction of lycopene using enzymes.
Ботинки в городском стиле, с гордостью произведённые вручную мастерами Италии с применением специального метода конструкции Goodyear welted. Удобные и гибкие, они изготовлены с использованием уникальной конструкции обуви, мягкой телячьей кожи и внешней...