HIV infected patients have been shown to be at an increased risk of developing lymphomas. With a rising incidence and prevalence of HIV infections especially in Sub-Saharan Africa where over 60% of the HIV-positive patients in the world is found, this would certainly have a bearing on HIV/AIDS-associated conditions, lymphomas inclusive. Assessment of the epidemiological, clinical and biological aspects of AIDS-related lymphomas in Cameroon, a developing country in Sub-Saharan Africa has been of interest. The analysis at the Hematologic Unit of the University Teaching Hospital in Yaounde, Cameroon, where most of these patients are seen, unveiled findings similar to several other studies on the same subject in other countries. This study offers basic information for medical students, doctors and researchers interested in AID-related lymphomas in Cameroon.
This book try to show the effect of CD4 count WHO staging TB exposure and age on survival of HIV/AIDS patients in two district Hospitals in southern Ethiopia in addition to that it shows the impact of some routine laboratory result on survival of HIV patients and in Ethiopia this routine activity is not done in standard way and this has a negative impact on survival of patients living with HIV/AIDS who are on ART treatment in some district Hospitals in southern Ethiopia
This research is a cross-sectional study to investigate the association between CD4+ cell count, intestinal parasites and diarrhea in HIV infected patients in Khartoum State, Sudan between the years 2007 – 2010. The study was conducted on 657 HIV infected and non-infected patients, of the study sample 423 were HIV positive patients. The HIV positive patients in the sample were divided into two categories the first on ART and the second without ART. Stool samples were collected from patients to diagnose parasitic infections by examination of a single stool specimen as fresh wet mount preparation, formol-ether concentration technique and staining. CD4 counts were recorded to assess the status of HIV infection vis-a-vis parasitic infection. The results showed that diarrhea was more prevalent in HIV infected than in HIV non-infected patients. Patients with chronic diarrhea had lower CD4 cell counts. The study reached very significant and important conclusions in the association between CD4+ cell count, intestinal parasites and diarrhea which all can lead to better diagnose for the treatment of HIV infected patients.
Many of the opportunistic infections in HIV are caused by commensal bacteria which are otherwise harmless in a normal individual.The study was designed to compare the oral microbiota in normal and HIV infected individuals. The study tries to establish a significant shift in oral microflora in HIV infected patients. Our study is unique in that such a study of the oral commensals in HIV patients has never been reported. We found an increased colonization of the oral cavity by Micrococcus spp. which is a normal commensal of the skin.
Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death and common presenting illness among people living with HIV. Likewise, HIV infection is more common among tuberculosis patients than among the general population. The consequence of failing to diagnose TB in person living with HIV or of not diagnosing HIV in a TB patient are severe. The aim of this study was to asses HIV/TB program &identify challenges to effective implementations. The findings revealed out 102 HIV positive patients registered in October 2008 in both facilities, 14(13.7%) of them have been screened for Tuberculosis. None of the patients has been put on IPT, whereas 74.5% of HIV positive patients were put on CPT. out of 61 illegible patients for antiretroviral therapy, 59% of them were put on this regimen. Out of 93 registered tuberculosis patients 67.7% of them were screened for HIV and 26.9% of them were found to be HIV positive. Among these 52.9% of them were put on CPT and 41.1% were put on ART. Both facilities didn’t have HIV/TB coordinator but they have trained person on HIV/TB. There was no adequate resources allocated for both facilities, no adequate room for ART, TB and data clerks.
HIV-1 infection in children is an important public health problem. Unlike adults, they get infected at the time of their birth itself. This leads to severe infection in children. There is a paucity of studies on the immune responses elicited against HIV-1 in children. This study conducted on naive and treated HIV-1 infected children from north India revealed the heterologous viral neutralization potential of the plasma of these patients. Higher viral neutralization potential was observed in patients on antiretroviral therapy as compared to naive patients, while the plasma antibodies to the immunogenic regions of the viral envelope were lesser in the treated patients. The viruses infecting the patients included in this study belonged to clade C as identified by the sequencing of a segment of HIV-1 envelope gene. Patients whose plasma showing high viral neutralization potential are good candidates for generation of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against HIV-1. Further, determining their neutralization specificities will help in identifying epitopes crucial for vaccine design. This is the first study on evaluating the humoral immune responses in HIV-1 infected children.
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. With the advent of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) pandemic, the problem of TB has got worse. The incidence of TB in patients with HIV infection / AIDS is nearly 500 times higher than in the general population. In HIV infected patients tuberculosis may frequently present in sites other than the lungs, lymphadenitis being the most common but it may be in the bone, liver, or in almost any organ of the body. Disseminated tuberculosis (DTB) is also more common in patients with HIV infection. Diagnosis of TB is also difficult in patients with HIV infection as rate of sputum AFB positivity is less and chest X-Ray changes are also atypical. The prevalence of extrapulmonary TB is also higher in patients with HIV infection were obtaining clinical samples is difficult. The present work is done to evaluate role of Mycobacteremia, which is a simple and convenient test done by blood culture using MB\Bact method, in diagnosis of tuberculosis with or without HIV infection.
The HIV pandemic has continued to spread especially in sub Sahara Africa, while Multi drug resistance HIV has emerged rendering the current conventional treatment of HIV ineffective. There is a need for new treatment regime which is cheap, effective and not prone to resistance development by HIV. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) activates Nuclear Factor kappa B this stimulates Tissue Necrosis Factor (TNF) receptors, which activates the cytokine system including Apoptosis Signaling Kinase. In absence of seleno-enzyme GSHpx this process leads to apoptosis of CD4 T cells in Selenium Deficient HIV positive patients. The study looks at the effect of increased selenium intake by HIV patients. This study targets HIV clinicians, medical students, community health practitioners working with HIV/AIDS patients and Health Policy Makers.
Malnutrition is one of the earliest complications of HIV infection. This cross-sectional study (involving 100 newly diagnosed HIV positive patients) was carried out to evaluate the relationship between the nutritional status and immune status of HIV positive patients, and to look into the various factors contributing to malnutrition in these patients. In the study sample, 46% of the patients were malnourished according to body mass index, 85% were malnourished according to triceps skin-fold thickness and 98% were malnourished according to mid arm muscle circumference. Tuberculosis, chronic diarrhea, candidiasis and depression were associated with malnutrition. Nutritional, anthropometric and laboratory parameters were found to have significant correlation with the immune status. Hence, nutritional assessment of HIV-infected persons can identify those at risk for adverse outcomes from nutritional deficiencies and help in planning appropriate interventions.
Many aspects of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS] have been described in detail in the literature. However, there has been very few articles on the phenomenon of Deep Vein Thrombosis [DVT] in the lower extremities of human immunodeficiency virus [HIV/AIDS] infected patients. There is reason to believe that the number of patients being admitted with Deep Vein Thrombosis in our hospital recently has increased compared with past records. Many patients have also been admitted with pulmonary embolism some of which were actually diagnosed at autopsy. Of note is that most of these patients admitted either with DVT or thrombosis at other sites are also infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Although some of them have other risk factors for thrombosis like obesity, infections (e.g. Tuberculosis) etc, the relationship between thrombosis and HIV infection has been documented by many researchers. It has been found that HIV infection predisposes to a hypercoagulable state and that the risk of venous thromboembolism is about 10times that expected among people without HIV. In addition, various abnormalities leading to a hypercoagulable state have been detected in HIV patients
HIV/AIDS is a major public health problem in Sub-Sahara Africa. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been found to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The virus has been reported to enhance HIV replication and accelerate the progression of HIV to AIDS. In Nigeria there is a dearth of information on the prevalence of Cytomegalovirus infection among HIV/AIDS patients. This study was designed to determine the prevalence rate as well as risk factors for CMV infection among HIV/AIDS patients in Ilorin, Nigeria. A cross sectional study was carried out among consecutively recruited HIV sero-positive patients attending the HAART clinic at U.I.T.H, Ilorin between October 2008 to September 2009. A volume of 5 ml blood sample was collected from each consenting participant as well as age and sex matched HIV sero-positive control group . The sera was assayed for CMV IgG/IgM using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). A semi-structured pre-tested questionnaire was also used to assess the risk factors for CMV infection among HIV sero-positive participants
We obtained secondary data from the HIV/AIDS Monitoring Program at the Builsa District hospital, in which HIV patients were enrolled and their CD4 cell counts were being regularly monitored and thus generating repeated measures of CD4 counts. We could not tell whether patients on treatment increases or decreases in CD4 counts over time. The study was to investigate whether treatment and some social-economic factors influenced patients CD4 count after a period of treatment. Profile analysis was used to study the pattern of change in the CD4 count. Mixed effects modeling approach was also used for modeling the CD4 counts of the patients and to describe the relationship
HIV infection,a global pandemic,causes profound immunodeficiency. As CD4 cell count declines, the patient is at higher risk of developing a variety of Opportunistic diseases (OI’s) including infections and neoplasms. Factors like Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS),failure of ART,ART resistance and drug compliance have further modified the course of this disease. However, patients at different stages of their Anti Retroviral Therapy continue to develop OI. This study shows the pattern of infections occurring in HIV patients . A prospective, longitudinal, study was done during a 2 year period over 100 HIV patients with opportunistic infection in Bharati Medical College,Hospital and research centre, Pune, Maharashtra,India. Most common infection was pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis followed by oral candidiasis , herpes zoster and toxoplasmosis respectively. Maximum patients were in median age of 40 yrs, males of labourer group were more commonly affected in study. Multiple as well as single OI were seen in a significant number of HIV patients. This study will guide the beginners studying HIV regarding various opportunistic infections in HIV disease.
Most of the studies done in the field of HIV were focused around patients who are taking Anti Retro viral drugs .There are very limited number of studies are available for patients who are not under the treatment of Anti- Retro viral drugs. This work incorporates most of the recent findings that are relevant to the HIV/AIDS patients who are not an Anti-Retro Viral drugs. While formulating the health policies, it has been deemed necessary about that the clear understanding of the demographic profile and socio economic status of the people who are affected by the disease. This book deals with the demographic profile of HIV/AIDS patients ,route of transmission of HIV among the patients, Behavioural pattern of the patients, discordant couples ,hygienic practises followed by the patients, clinical profile of the patients and prevalence of opportunistic infections among them.So this will give the clear idea about the profile of the HIV/AIDS patients who are not on Anti- Retroviral drugs in Chennai, India.