This is the first study in Jordan to determine the degree of bacterial contamination of water outlets from high-speed drill and air/water syringe waterlines in dental clinics. Total heterotrophic bacterial counts (HPC), in addition to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Legionella pneuomophila as opportunistic pathogens were investigated in the source water, high-speed drill and air/water syringe waterlines. Heterotrophic bacterial counts (HPCs) exceeded 500 CFU/ml in 26% of the water sources supplying the units. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was detected in 12% of the source water sample supplying the dental unit in a range of 1-500 CFU/ml. Concentration ranging between 1-100 CFU/ml of Legionella pneuomophila of serogroup 1 was detected in 20% of source water samples. This study has shown that dental unit waterlines were not complying with International Drinking Water standards for heterotrophic mesophilic bacterial count (>500 CFU/ml), nor with the American Dental Association guidelines (>200 CFU/ml). The presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Legionella pneuomophila is an indication of low water quality in dental unit waterlines.
Present study aimed at the detection of microbial contamination present in commercially available and freshly prepared orange juice samples collected from different localities of Lahore, Pakistan. Results showed the presence of Enterococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Micrococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Bacillus spp. in commercially available orange juices which clearly demonstrates the unhygienic conditions of processing plants. In most localities, the freshly squeezed orange juices were hygienically very poor as bacterial loads on the whole were abnormally high. Based on the presence of Enterococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Micrococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Bacillus spp., Erwinia spp., Salmonella spp., Klebsiella spp., Coliforms, Pseudomonas spp., Vibrio spp. and Leuconostoc spp. in fresh orange juices, it is concluded that juices in certain areas inside the city are highly impacted and unfit for human consumption. It is agreed that such type of contamination is the result of bad quality water used for dilution of juices, unhygienic surroundings and location of stalls by the side of a busy road with vehicular traffic or by the side of waste disposal and overcrowding.
Airborne microorganisms are present in all indoor environments. Hospitals environment is full of pathogens which may influence the health of both patients and hospital staff and may cause nosocomial infections. Hospital indoor air may contain a diverse range of microbial population that includes several pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria, viruses and fungi. The significance of these microbes is that are responsible for many acute diseases, infections and allergies. Indoor air quality is very important in health care facilities to ensure the safety of patients, personnel, and visitors. Therefore, the estimation of the quantity and types of airborne microorganisms is considerably important since these values can be used as an index for the cleanliness of the environment and source of hospital acquired infections.
Increasing health awareness has led to consumption of minimally processed foods in recent years. Minimally processed foods or other raw vegetables have become popular since it suits the present day necessity as need of elaborate preparations are not required .Fruits and vegetables carry microbial flora while passing from the farm to the table. The produce is exposed to potential microbial contamination at every step including cultivation, harvesting, transporting, packaging, storage and selling to the final consumers. Microbial spoilage and contaminating pathogens pose a serious problem in food safety. To minimize the risk of infection or intoxication associated, potential sources of contamination from the environment to the table should be identified and specific measures and interventions to prevent and/or minimize the risk of contamination should be considered and correctly implemented. This book provides an overview of the hazards associated with raw fruits and vegetables sold in the local markets, assessment of their microbial load and also evaluates the efficacy of the antimicrobial dips to minimize the associated microbial risks.
Freshwater Prawn: A delicious food item Freshwater prawns are so available in natural aquatic bodies in Bangladesh. These crustaceans may be contaminated with several hazards. The international buyers are so concern about the imported quality frozen products of prawn in their countries. So, the microbial assessment of exportable fisheries products is necessary to fish processing plants. This book provides the findings by individual assessment of the author on microbial contents of total bacterial load, presence of coliform and contamination range of Salmonella spp. and Vibrio cholera in raw(head on, shell on)and export quality frozen freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in a renowned fish processing plant, Bangladesh. The microbial information of this book can be helpful to the prawn farmers, fish processing plants, quality control units of fisheries products exporting zone, group of companies that exports quality fisheries products and people who feel interest in microbial assessment.
In the context of very high prevalence of diarrhoeal diseases in Bangladesh, bacteriological quality received priority as a criterion for drinking water supply. Groundwater is normally free from pathogenic microbes and adequately available in shallow aquifers for development of low-cost tubewell based water supply. Bangladesh achieved a remarkable success by providing 97% of the rural population with bacteriologically safe tube well water. Unfortunately, arsenic in excess of acceptable limit has been found in tubewell water in most parts of Bangladesh. Water quality studies conducted so far have shown that dug wells have reduced arsenic ingestion but exposed population to high levels of health risk from microbial contamination. This study aims at understanding the nature of contamination of dugwell water and decontamination by in-situ chemical disinfection. For preliminary water quality analysis, dugwells were selected from Sirajdikhan, Singair, Daudkandi and Sharsha upazilas. After preliminary water quality analysis, two dugwells with high microbial contamination from Sirajdikhan and one dugwell with high arsenic content from Sharsha were selected for decontamination study.
Consequently, more than five billion people in developing country worldwide are at risk of chronic exposure to Aflatoxins through contaminated foods and medicinal plants. Aflatoxin-associated health effects pervade the developing world. Selection of proper packaging material which providing shield against Aflatoxins and microbiological growth during storage till consumption of medicinal plants will reduce Aflatoxin contain, damage from mould and other microbial infestation to increase safety and quality and help in Aflatoxin control and guide to good storage practices, good trade and distribution practices (GTDP) for medicinal plants.
The presence of biofilm aroused increasing interest in the food business operators in what can be the cause of health problems, as well as of economic damage. The periodic detachment of bacterial cells from the biofilm, in fact, is a possible source of contamination of work environments, and then the food by both spoilage germs and pathogens. Listeria monocytogenes, a ubiquitous germ, frequently isolated from processing environments and conveyed from foods of both animal and vegetable again. L. monocytogenes, once entry within an establishment is difficult to eradicate the remarkable ability to adaptation and survival even in the particularly difficult conditions. Numerous factors environment such as temperature, concentration of nutrients (especially simple sugars, amino acids, PO4), pH, type of contact surface and different stress response.
Recent studies acknowledge the impact that stormwater has in receiving waters, often as great as wastewater, in urban contexts. Despite being widely studied, modelling of urban stormwater runoff has proven a challenge due to relevant spatial and temporal variability, and a short understanding of the build-up processes of diffuse source pollutants in dry weather. Current water quality evaluation is based on the level of faecal contamination, through faecal indicator bacteria, such as E. coli and enterococci. As pollution mitigation measures are currently converging towards treat-at-source solutions, it seems urgent to pinpoint the source of the detected faecal pollution in urban environments. Microbial source tracking methods are promising tools in finding the source of any contamination, but despite their fast development and numerous applications, they haven't yet been used to track faecal pollution in urban stormwater runoff. This study presents a viable tracking of three species – Humans, Cats and Dogs – through mitochondrial DNA markers, in collected samples, correlated with a strong degree of faecal pollution, highlighting the need for treatment at WWTPs prior to discharge.
The consumption of meat is increasing among the public as consumers strive to eat healthy diets. Grilled guinea fowl are usually sold in the Tamale Central Sub-metropolitan, Ghana by the road side by vendors. However, these vendors operate under unhygienic conditions that could make the products susceptible to microbial contamination. The study was conducted to assess the microbial quality of grilled guinea fowl sold in the Tamale Central Sub-metropolitan. The samples were collected from five vending sites and conveyed immediately to Water Research Institute Laboratory, Tamale for Analysis. The grilled guinea fowl samples were immediately analysed for the presence of total coliform, faecal coliform, E. coli, and Salmonella spp using the Membrane Filtration Technique and Pour plate counts for total heterotrophic bacteria.These microbes were identified in all the food samples and the possible sources of contaminants include the equipment and others.
Microbial contamination in pharmaceutical industry presents annoying problem to those working in the field & costs companies millions of dollars from recalls, product spoilage, rework or rejection and biofilm formation. Monitoring tools & trending of bioburden in the area of drug manufacturing is critical step to evaluate degree of microbial control in pharmaceutical manufacturing. In order to achieve good microbial control disinfectant validation program must be established. This book provides simple guide to determine antimicrobial efficacy of two selected commonly used disinfectants with environmental isolates using surface carrier test which mimic real situation of application. The most resistant species of these isolates from the same genus should be subjected to analysis to find possible nature of resistance. Antimicrobial effect of addition of selected synthetic surface active agent namely Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate to biocidal agents was examined. Neutralization procedure is a preliminary step of disinfectant qualification that do not give similar outcome for different microorganisms so failing organisms are to be excluded from this study being in need for different conditions
Biofilms are complex aggregates of microbes which attach to each other or to the surface and play a role in antibiotic resistance and persistence of infection. This research highlights that bacteria isolated from surface samples and equipments indicate poor hygienic condition in hospitals. Biofilm formation results in persistence of these organisms which contribute to Nosocomial infections. Contamination of water from swimming pools and domestic water indicates poor hygienic standards and ineffective chlorination. Biofilm of uropathogens and pus from wounds of diabetic patients, burn patient and surgical site infection result in prolonged infection, antibiotic resistance, delayed wound healing and extended hospitalization. Candida biofim also cause persistence of infection and helps the fungi to survive resulting in resistant infections. This book is useful for researchers, scientists, medical students, doctors and general public as it gives an insight about biofilms and its role in Nosocomial infection, transmission of infection through recreational water, domestic water and the role of biofilm in disease process and antibiotic resistance of organisms.
Feed withdrawal refers to the total length of time the chickens are without feed prior to processing which reduce carcass contamination. Generally, research investigates the effect of different pre-slaughter feed withdrawal periods (0.0, 4.0, 8.0 and 12.0 h) and live body weight grade at slaughter (grade W1 from 1800 to 2000 g and grade W2 from 1600 to 1800 g) on carcass contamination. In addition the effect of carcass immersion in acetic acid (10%) for 15 minutes and different pre-slaughter feed withdrawal periods (0.0, 4.0, 8.0 and 12.0 h) on microbiological structure of gut content total microbial counting of some broiler parts, microscopical examination of the viable bacterial total count and Pathogenic bacterial counting of some broiler parts were also tested.
Periodontal diseases are infections caused by micro-organisms that colonize the tooth surface at or below the gingival margin and results from the formation of biofilms on tooth surfaces and are of immediate concern. Dental biofilms are defined as a diverse community of microorganisms living as a structural unit,with complex communication pathways between species. The presence of a oral biofilm alone is often not sufficient to cause disease because most oral biofilm-associated diseases are complex with a multifactorial etiology. Advances in molecular techniques have given rise to a much greater understanding of the diversity and complexity of human micro-biota communities,including dental plaque. Plaque development may no longer be thought of in generic terms,but rather,as a highly individualized process. With that come new avenues for the understanding of plaque development in relation to its host,and therefore the potential for the development of more effective treatments.