This is the first study in Jordan to determine the degree of bacterial contamination of water outlets from high-speed drill and air/water syringe waterlines in dental clinics. Total heterotrophic bacterial counts (HPC), in addition to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Legionella pneuomophila as opportunistic pathogens were investigated in the source water, high-speed drill and air/water syringe waterlines. Heterotrophic bacterial counts (HPCs) exceeded 500 CFU/ml in 26% of the water sources supplying the units. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was detected in 12% of the source water sample supplying the dental unit in a range of 1-500 CFU/ml. Concentration ranging between 1-100 CFU/ml of Legionella pneuomophila of serogroup 1 was detected in 20% of source water samples. This study has shown that dental unit waterlines were not complying with International Drinking Water standards for heterotrophic mesophilic bacterial count (>500 CFU/ml), nor with the American Dental Association guidelines (>200 CFU/ml). The presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Legionella pneuomophila is an indication of low water quality in dental unit waterlines.
Increasing health awareness has led to consumption of minimally processed foods in recent years. Minimally processed foods or other raw vegetables have become popular since it suits the present day necessity as need of elaborate preparations are not required .Fruits and vegetables carry microbial flora while passing from the farm to the table. The produce is exposed to potential microbial contamination at every step including cultivation, harvesting, transporting, packaging, storage and selling to the final consumers. Microbial spoilage and contaminating pathogens pose a serious problem in food safety. To minimize the risk of infection or intoxication associated, potential sources of contamination from the environment to the table should be identified and specific measures and interventions to prevent and/or minimize the risk of contamination should be considered and correctly implemented. This book provides an overview of the hazards associated with raw fruits and vegetables sold in the local markets, assessment of their microbial load and also evaluates the efficacy of the antimicrobial dips to minimize the associated microbial risks.
Freshwater Prawn: A delicious food item Freshwater prawns are so available in natural aquatic bodies in Bangladesh. These crustaceans may be contaminated with several hazards. The international buyers are so concern about the imported quality frozen products of prawn in their countries. So, the microbial assessment of exportable fisheries products is necessary to fish processing plants. This book provides the findings by individual assessment of the author on microbial contents of total bacterial load, presence of coliform and contamination range of Salmonella spp. and Vibrio cholera in raw(head on, shell on)and export quality frozen freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in a renowned fish processing plant, Bangladesh. The microbial information of this book can be helpful to the prawn farmers, fish processing plants, quality control units of fisheries products exporting zone, group of companies that exports quality fisheries products and people who feel interest in microbial assessment.
Dental professionals are exposed to a wide variety of microorganisms in blood and saliva of the patients. These microorganisms can cause infectious diseases. “Prevention is better than cure” – This saying holds true all the more in the field of infection control. The goal of infection control is to provide optimal protection for clinicians and patients from cross contamination in the dental environment.
In the context of very high prevalence of diarrhoeal diseases in Bangladesh, bacteriological quality received priority as a criterion for drinking water supply. Groundwater is normally free from pathogenic microbes and adequately available in shallow aquifers for development of low-cost tubewell based water supply. Bangladesh achieved a remarkable success by providing 97% of the rural population with bacteriologically safe tube well water. Unfortunately, arsenic in excess of acceptable limit has been found in tubewell water in most parts of Bangladesh. Water quality studies conducted so far have shown that dug wells have reduced arsenic ingestion but exposed population to high levels of health risk from microbial contamination. This study aims at understanding the nature of contamination of dugwell water and decontamination by in-situ chemical disinfection. For preliminary water quality analysis, dugwells were selected from Sirajdikhan, Singair, Daudkandi and Sharsha upazilas. After preliminary water quality analysis, two dugwells with high microbial contamination from Sirajdikhan and one dugwell with high arsenic content from Sharsha were selected for decontamination study.
The aquaculture industry of the world has been facing serious problem due to microbial diseases. The present study was carried out to know the gut microflora of two commercially important crabs, P. pelagicus and P. sanguinolentus for a period of one year from December 2008 to November 2009. The cosumers are eating these crabs without knowing the bacerial contamination. So in this study an attempt wss made to inventigate the bacteriel contamination of crabs in different localities. This information is very useful for tne consumers.
Every tooth in a man's head is more valuable than a diamond(Miguel de Cervantes) Dental caries is a microbial disease of the calcified tissues of the teeth, characterized by demineralization of inorganic portion and destruction of the organic substances of tooth. It is a complex, dynamic and continuous biological process. The dynamic balance between demineralization and remineralization determines the end result. Future microbiological studies of caries should focus on a better understanding of the physiolocal mechanisms that serve to maintain the dynamic stability in dental biofilms, thus preventing its occurrence.
Present study aimed at the detection of microbial contamination present in commercially available and freshly prepared orange juice samples collected from different localities of Lahore, Pakistan. Results showed the presence of Enterococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Micrococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Bacillus spp. in commercially available orange juices which clearly demonstrates the unhygienic conditions of processing plants. In most localities, the freshly squeezed orange juices were hygienically very poor as bacterial loads on the whole were abnormally high. Based on the presence of Enterococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Micrococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Bacillus spp., Erwinia spp., Salmonella spp., Klebsiella spp., Coliforms, Pseudomonas spp., Vibrio spp. and Leuconostoc spp. in fresh orange juices, it is concluded that juices in certain areas inside the city are highly impacted and unfit for human consumption. It is agreed that such type of contamination is the result of bad quality water used for dilution of juices, unhygienic surroundings and location of stalls by the side of a busy road with vehicular traffic or by the side of waste disposal and overcrowding.
The tooth surfaces are unique in that they are the only body part not subject to metabolic turnover. Once formed, the teeth are, under the correct conditions, essentially indestructible, as witnessed by their importance in fossil records and forensic medicine. Yet in the living individual, the integrity of the teeth is assaulted by a microbial challenge so great that dental infections rank as the most universal affliction of humankind. The discomfort caused by these infections and their enormous cost (dental infections rank third in medical costs, behind heart disease and cancer, in the United States) gives dental diseases prominence despite their non-life-threatening nature. This book reviews the bacterial aspects of dental caries and suggests that, in the future, treatment will be directed toward eliminating or suppressing certain bacterial species that appear to be overt pathogens in the dental plaque.
Dental caries is a transmittable infectious disease with a central role of bacteria instrumenting the onset of caries formation. Human oral cavity harbours numerous microbes which are not yet been able to culture or investigate. The present study was aimed to characterize the microbial population associated with the dental caries using culture dependent and culture independent approaches. Various biochemical characterization including Biofilm Formation analysis, Antibiotic Assay and 16s rRNA gene amplification were performed to investigate the culture dependent analysis of microbial flora associated with dental caries. Biofilm formation test revealed that the oral bacterial strains formed better biofilms. Also, molecular approach of recombinant DNA technology (Metagenomics) was employed for culture independent analysis of microbial flora associated with dental caries.
Infection control is a critical aspect in today's health care delivery model. This book attempts to compile and describe the various aspects of infection control with particular focus on infection control in orthodontics. Concepts and methods of sterilization and disinfection are discussed in detail, alongside stategies to ensure infection control and prevent cross contamination with additional inputs on orthodontic office design,laboratory asepsis, surface and waterline asepsis and waste management
Marine sediments are often characterized by the presence of high concentrations of organic and inorganic contaminants, influencing sediment re-use and/or disposal. The use of eco-compatible strategies is promising to reduce the level of contamination. In this book important findings in the field of sediment bioremediation are reported, including a better understanding of the role of microbial communities in relation to contaminant fate, and kinetic models for contaminant biodegradation. The information given here is the result of an interdisciplinary methodological approach, based on tools of Microbial Ecology, Biogeochemistry and Process Analysis to overcome the many difficulties that are encountered when bioremediation is applied. A know-how to face with sediment bioremediation has been developed, useful to professionals working in the field of Sediment Management, researchers, students or anyone else interested in the tricky application of environmentally friendly strategies to contaminated sediments.
Diploma in Dental Nursing, Level 3 is the new edition of the must-have study companion for trainee dental nurses preparing for the City & Guilds Level 3 Diploma in Dental Nursing (formerly NVQ). The book offers comprehensive support on the units assessed by portfolio – from first aid and health and safety to specific chairside support procedures – as well as the four areas of the course tested by multiple choice questions: infection control, oral health assessment, dental radiography and oral health management. This third edition of an established revision text has been substantially revised and restructured in line with the new qualification and reflects changes in the regulations and legislature affecting dentistry and dental workplaces, all of which have an effect on the daily role and working life of the dental nurse. It will be an invaluable guide for dental nurse trainees, qualified dental nurses and course providers. – Expanded and revised, with extensive coverage of the fifteen Diploma units – In full colour throughout with over 400 illustrations – Companion website with downloadable glossary and MCQs for revision and self-assessment
Feed withdrawal refers to the total length of time the chickens are without feed prior to processing which reduce carcass contamination. Generally, research investigates the effect of different pre-slaughter feed withdrawal periods (0.0, 4.0, 8.0 and 12.0 h) and live body weight grade at slaughter (grade W1 from 1800 to 2000 g and grade W2 from 1600 to 1800 g) on carcass contamination. In addition the effect of carcass immersion in acetic acid (10%) for 15 minutes and different pre-slaughter feed withdrawal periods (0.0, 4.0, 8.0 and 12.0 h) on microbiological structure of gut content total microbial counting of some broiler parts, microscopical examination of the viable bacterial total count and Pathogenic bacterial counting of some broiler parts were also tested.