While the static behavior of concrete has been the subject of numerous works, the same cannot be said for the dynamic behavior. This book sets out to remedy this situation: it begins by presenting the most frequently used experimental techniques in the study of the dynamic behavior of concrete, then continues by examining seismicity and seismic behavior, soil behavior, models of concrete structures subject to seismic activity, seismic calculation methods of structures, and paraseismic engineering.
While numerous books have been written on earthquakes, earthquake resistance design, and seismic analysis and design of structures, none have been tailored for advanced students and practitioners, and those who would like to have most of the important aspects of seismic analysis in one place. With this book, readers will gain proficiencies in the following: fundamentals of seismology that all structural engineers must know; various forms of seismic inputs; different types of seismic analysis like, time and frequency domain analyses, spectral analysis of structures for random ground motion, response spectrum method of analysis; equivalent lateral load analysis as given in earthquake codes; inelastic response analysis and the concept of ductility; ground response analysis and seismic soil structure interaction; seismic reliability analysis of structures; and control of seismic response of structures. Provides comprehensive coverage, from seismology to seismic control Contains useful empirical equations often required in the seismic analysis of structures Outlines explicit steps for seismic analysis of MDOF systems with multi support excitations Works through solved problems to illustrate different concepts Makes use of MATLAB, SAP2000 and ABAQUAS in solving example problems of the book Provides numerous exercise problems to aid understanding of the subject As one of the first books to present such a comprehensive treatment of the topic, Seismic Analysis of Structures is ideal for postgraduates and researchers in Earthquake Engineering, Structural Dynamics, and Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering. Developed for classroom use, the book can also be used for advanced undergraduate students planning for a career or further study in the subject area. The book will also better equip structural engineering consultants and practicing engineers in the use of standard software for seismic analysis of buildings, bridges, dams, and towers. Lecture materials for instructors available at www.wiley.com/go/dattaseismic
Project Report from the year 2015 in the subject Engineering - Civil Engineering, grade: 1.3 (90-100%), Dresden Technical University, language: English, abstract: In the frame of a research program at the TU Dresden, reinforced concrete slabs are tested in a drop-tower. The goal is to obtain a model with which the prediction of the structural behav-ior of the slabs under high loading rates, depending on different parameters. The global behavior response of RC slabs (symmetric reinforcement without shear stirrups) due to a hard impact projectile and a strain rate 10-1 [1/s] has been addressed in this project-work. A complex drop-mass apparatus is used to conduct experiments and investigations on the impact dynamic behavior of RC slabsThe focus was on the response stage of the linear elastic field and how to correlate this re-sponse stage to the drop-height depending on raw experimental data.A process of data analysis for hundreds, thousands, or millions of data measurements has been carried out and an analytical model based on a system of single degree of freedom and different simplifications is shown with different verification methods. The model enables predicting bending response due to impact.The test of 11 slabs with drop-heights (1 to 4 meters) provides the required data to calibrate the analytical model as well as future numerical models.
Why do earthquakes happen? What properties control the dynamic rupture and what are the processes at play? Chapters in the present volume capture the current state of the art by displaying an overview of the existing knowledge on the physics of dynamic faulting and promote multidisciplinary contributions on the observational and experimental fault fabric and mechanics, the evolution of fault zone physical and chemical properties, dynamic rupture processes and physically, and observationally, consistent numerical modeling of fault zone during seismic rupture. This volume examines questions such as: What are the dynamics processes recorded in fault gouge? What can we learn on rupture dynamic from laboratory experiments? How on-fault and off-fault properties affect seismic ruptures? How do they evolve trough time? Insights from physically, and observationally, consistent numerical modeling Fault Zone Dynamic Processes: Evolution of Fault Properties During Seismic Rupture is a valuable contribution for Earth’s scientists, researchers and students interested in the earthquakes processes and properties of on-fault and off-fault zones. Its multidisciplinary content is relevant to a broad audience: structural geologist, experimentalists, rocks mechanicians, seismologist, geophysicists and modelers.
Engineering structures may be subjected to extreme high-rate loading conditions, like those associated with natural disasters (earthquakes, tsunamis, rock falls, etc.) or those of anthropic origin (impacts, fluid–structure interactions, shock wave transmissions, etc.). Characterization and modeling of the mechanical behavior of materials under these environments is important in predicting the response of structures and improving designs. This book gathers contributions by eminent researchers in academia and government research laboratories on the latest advances in the understanding of the dynamic process of damage, cracking and fragmentation. It allows the reader to develop an understanding of the key features of the dynamic mechanical behavior of brittle (e.g. granular and cementitious), heterogeneous (e.g. energetic) and ductile (e.g. metallic) materials.
The book covers the application of numerical methods to reinforced concrete structures. To analyze reinforced concrete structures linear elastic theories are inadequate because of cracking, bond and the nonlinear and time dependent behavior of both concrete and reinforcement. These effects have to be considered for a realistic assessment of the behavior of reinforced concrete structures with respect to ultimate limit states and serviceability limit states. The book gives a compact review of finite element and other numerical methods. The key to these methods is through a proper description of material behavior. Thus, the book summarizes the essential material properties of concrete and reinforcement and their interaction through bond. These basics are applied to different structural types such as bars, beams, strut and tie models, plates, slabs and shells. This includes prestressing of structures, cracking, nonlinear stressstrain relations, creeping, shrinkage and temperature changes. Appropriate methods are developed for each structural type. Large displacement and dynamic problems are treated as well as short-term quasi-static problems and long-term transient problems like creep and shrinkage. Most problems are illustrated by examples which are solved by the program package ConFem, based on the freely available Python programming language. The ConFem source code together with the problem data is available under open source rules at concrete-fem.com. The author aims to demonstrate the potential and the limitations of numerical methods for simulation of reinforced concrete structures, addressing students, teachers, researchers and designing and checking engineers.
Widely used in civil, mechanical and automotive engineering since the early 1980s, multilayer rubber bearings have been used as seismic isolation devices for buildings in highly seismic areas in many countries. Their appeal in these applications comes from their ability to provide a component with high stiffness in one direction with high flexibility in one or more orthogonal directions. This combination of vertical stiffness with horizontal flexibility, achieved by reinforcing the rubber by thin steel shims perpendicular to the vertical load, enables them to be used as seismic and vibration isolators for machinery, buildings and bridges. Mechanics of Rubber Bearings for Seismic and Vibration Isolation collates the most important information on the mechanics of multilayer rubber bearings. It explores a unique and comprehensive combination of relevant topics, covering all prerequisite fundamental theory and providing a number of closed-form solutions to various boundary value problems as well as a comprehensive historical overview on the use of isolation. Many of the results presented in the book are new and are essential for a proper understanding of the behavior of these bearings and for the design and analysis of vibration or seismic isolation systems. The advantages afforded by adopting these natural rubber systems is clearly explained to designers and users of this technology, bringing into focus the design and specification of bearings for buildings, bridges and industrial structures. This comprehensive book: includes state of the art, as yet unpublished research along with all required fundamental concepts; is authored by world-leading experts with over 40 years of combined experience on seismic isolation and the behavior of multilayer rubber bearings; is accompanied by a website at www.wiley.com/go/kelly The concise approach of Mechanics of Rubber Bearings for Seismic and Vibration Isolation forms an invaluable resource for graduate students and researchers/practitioners in structural and mechanical engineering departments, in particular those working in seismic and vibration isolation.
Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) is a relatively new building material. Nowadays, its use is progressively changing the method of concrete placement on building sites. However, the successful use of SCC requires a good understanding of the behavior of this material, which is vastly different from traditional concrete. For this purpose, a lot of research has been conducted on this area all over the world since 10 years. Intended for both practitioners and scientists, this book provides research results from the rheological behavior of fresh concrete to durability.
Earthquakes are a way of life on Earth, and, whether you live in an area that is often affected by earthquakes or not, every building, every road, every bridge, and, in fact, almost everything constructed by humans in which we walk, sleep, live, sit, or visit, has to be constructed to withstand an earthquake, by following local, regional, or national codes, laws, and regulations. Further to this, the science and engineering behind these constructions go further than what is mandated by government as a part of their practice. All construction, and, in general, all life on Earth, has some risk of seismic impacts. A comprehensive description of any seismic action may be given only on a probabilistic basis and, in general, is very bulky and quite uncertain. However, for a variety of structures or systems that meet fairly simple models of behavior during earthquakes, a general description of the seismic action is not required, for prediction of the status of such facilities or systems may be sufficient to define one or more common parameters of seismic impact. Thus, it makes sense to search for optimal parameters of influence in which optimality is understood with the greatest ease with sufficient information. This book contains a description of several models of seismic effects and examples of implementation of these models at specific sites. Using this information, scientists and engineers can design structures that are stronger, safer, and longer-lasting. It is a must-have for any scientist, engineer, or student working in or researching seismic loads and constructions with a view toward withstanding seismic activity.
This title provides a comprehensive overview of all aspects of the mechanical behavior of concrete, including such features as its elastoplasticity, its compressive and tensile strength, its behavior over time (including creep and shrinkage, cracking and fatigue) as well as modeling techniques and its response to various stimuli. As such, it will be required reading for anyone wishing to increase their knowledge in this area.
Comprehensive coverage of durability of concrete at both material and structural levels, with design related issues Links two active fields in materials science and structural engineering: the durability processes of concrete materials and design methods of concrete structures Facilitates communication between the two communities, helping to implement life-cycle concepts into future design methods of concrete structures Presents state-of-the-art information on the deterioration mechanism and performance evolution of structural concrete under environmental actions and the design methods for durability of concrete structures Provides efficient support and practical tools for life-cycle oriented structural design which has been widely recognized as a new generation of design philosophy for engineering structures The author has long experience working with the topic and the materials presented have been part of the author's current teaching course of Durability and Assessment of Engineering Structures for graduate students at Tsinghua University The design methods and approaches for durability of concrete structures are developed from newly finished high level research projects and have been employed as recommended provisions in design code including Chinese Code and Eurocode 2
"This standard assumes that the structure, after completion, is used as intended in the project and subject to planned inspection and maintenance to meet the expected project lifetime and to detect any unforeseen weakness or behavior" (EN 13670 §4.1) An important decision factor in the design of new structures and repairs to existing structures is the lifetime or expected service life. This concept, which is common for civil engineering works, has been extended to all engineering and building works by applying the European Structural Design Codes. This book tries to take stock of the inspection methodologies related to each type of civil engineering work, the various pathologies of concrete structures, and gives examples of the writing of reports.
Seismic inversion aims to reconstruct a quantitative model of the Earth subsurface, by solving an inverse problem based on seismic measurements. There are at least three fundamental issues to be solved simultaneously: non-linearity, non-uniqueness, and instability. This book covers the basic theory and techniques used in seismic inversion, corresponding to these three issues, emphasising the physical interpretation of theoretical concepts and practical solutions. This book is written for master and doctoral students who need to understand the mathematical tools and the engineering aspects of the inverse problem needed to obtain geophysically meaningful solutions. Building on the basic theory of linear inverse problems, the methodologies of seismic inversion are explained in detail, including ray-impedance inversion and waveform tomography etc. The application methodologies are categorised into convolutional and wave-equation based groups. This systematic presentation simplifies the subject and enables an in-depth understanding of seismic inversion. This book also provides a practical guide to reservoir geophysicists who are attempting quantitative reservoir characterisation based on seismic data. Philosophically, the seismic inverse problem allows for a range of possible solutions, but the techniques described herein enable geophysicists to exclude models that cannot satisfy the available data. This book summarises the author’s extensive experience in both industry and academia and includes innovative techniques not previously published.
Bayesian methods are a powerful tool in many areas of science and engineering, especially statistical physics, medical sciences, electrical engineering, and information sciences. They are also ideal for civil engineering applications, given the numerous types of modeling and parametric uncertainty in civil engineering problems. For example, earthquake ground motion cannot be predetermined at the structural design stage. Complete wind pressure profiles are difficult to measure under operating conditions. Material properties can be difficult to determine to a very precise level – especially concrete, rock, and soil. For air quality prediction, it is difficult to measure the hourly/daily pollutants generated by cars and factories within the area of concern. It is also difficult to obtain the updated air quality information of the surrounding cities. Furthermore, the meteorological conditions of the day for prediction are also uncertain. These are just some of the civil engineering examples to which Bayesian probabilistic methods are applicable. Familiarizes readers with the latest developments in the field Includes identification problems for both dynamic and static systems Addresses challenging civil engineering problems such as modal/model updating Presents methods applicable to mechanical and aerospace engineering Gives engineers and engineering students a concrete sense of implementation Covers real-world case studies in civil engineering and beyond, such as: structural health monitoring seismic attenuation finite-element model updating hydraulic jump artificial neural network for damage detection air quality prediction Includes other insightful daily-life examples Companion website with MATLAB code downloads for independent practice Written by a leading expert in the use of Bayesian methods for civil engineering problems This book is ideal for researchers and graduate students in civil and mechanical engineering or applied probability and statistics. Practicing engineers interested in the application of statistical methods to solve engineering problems will also find this to be a valuable text. MATLAB code and lecture materials for instructors available at http://www.wiley.com/go/yuen