Malnutrition is one of the earliest complications of HIV infection. This cross-sectional study (involving 100 newly diagnosed HIV positive patients) was carried out to evaluate the relationship between the nutritional status and immune status of HIV positive patients, and to look into the various factors contributing to malnutrition in these patients. In the study sample, 46% of the patients were malnourished according to body mass index, 85% were malnourished according to triceps skin-fold thickness and 98% were malnourished according to mid arm muscle circumference. Tuberculosis, chronic diarrhea, candidiasis and depression were associated with malnutrition. Nutritional, anthropometric and laboratory parameters were found to have significant correlation with the immune status. Hence, nutritional assessment of HIV-infected persons can identify those at risk for adverse outcomes from nutritional deficiencies and help in planning appropriate interventions.
Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death and common presenting illness among people living with HIV. Likewise, HIV infection is more common among tuberculosis patients than among the general population. The consequence of failing to diagnose TB in person living with HIV or of not diagnosing HIV in a TB patient are severe. The aim of this study was to asses HIV/TB program &identify challenges to effective implementations. The findings revealed out 102 HIV positive patients registered in October 2008 in both facilities, 14(13.7%) of them have been screened for Tuberculosis. None of the patients has been put on IPT, whereas 74.5% of HIV positive patients were put on CPT. out of 61 illegible patients for antiretroviral therapy, 59% of them were put on this regimen. Out of 93 registered tuberculosis patients 67.7% of them were screened for HIV and 26.9% of them were found to be HIV positive. Among these 52.9% of them were put on CPT and 41.1% were put on ART. Both facilities didn’t have HIV/TB coordinator but they have trained person on HIV/TB. There was no adequate resources allocated for both facilities, no adequate room for ART, TB and data clerks.
This research is a cross-sectional study to investigate the association between CD4+ cell count, intestinal parasites and diarrhea in HIV infected patients in Khartoum State, Sudan between the years 2007 – 2010. The study was conducted on 657 HIV infected and non-infected patients, of the study sample 423 were HIV positive patients. The HIV positive patients in the sample were divided into two categories the first on ART and the second without ART. Stool samples were collected from patients to diagnose parasitic infections by examination of a single stool specimen as fresh wet mount preparation, formol-ether concentration technique and staining. CD4 counts were recorded to assess the status of HIV infection vis-a-vis parasitic infection. The results showed that diarrhea was more prevalent in HIV infected than in HIV non-infected patients. Patients with chronic diarrhea had lower CD4 cell counts. The study reached very significant and important conclusions in the association between CD4+ cell count, intestinal parasites and diarrhea which all can lead to better diagnose for the treatment of HIV infected patients.
Malnutrition is highly prevalent worldwide among hemodialysis patients and is one of the strongest predictors of morbidity and mortality. So, this book determine the prevalence of malnutrition among hemodialysis patients, determine the impact of demographic socioeconomic factors on malnutrition indicators, determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease complications, evaluate the diet & fluid compliance among hemodialysis patients, and clarify the correlation between dietary intake and malnutrition among hemodialysis patients living in Gaza-Palestine. This book will help to identify opportunities for improving the nutritional status for hemodialysis patients.
This book try to show the effect of CD4 count WHO staging TB exposure and age on survival of HIV/AIDS patients in two district Hospitals in southern Ethiopia in addition to that it shows the impact of some routine laboratory result on survival of HIV patients and in Ethiopia this routine activity is not done in standard way and this has a negative impact on survival of patients living with HIV/AIDS who are on ART treatment in some district Hospitals in southern Ethiopia
A mother who is HIV positive not only worries of her health but also of the risk of transmitting the infection to her child. Health care workers intervene to prevent infection during pregnancy and child birth. There after infection is only likely to occur with breastfeeding hence replacement feeding is preferred to prevent HIV infection amongst mothers. It's sustainability in economically constrained societies can lead to malnutrition. The results of the study carried out in Nairobi, Kenya reveal the nutrition status of breastfed and replacement fed infants. Though breastfeeding carries a risk of HIV infection it leads to better nutrition status in the children.
Youth is a group of people which has been greatly affected by HIV epidemic in Malawi. They are vulnerable to HIV infection because they are at a stage where they are beginning sexual exploration. Youth therefore, need a lot of information and support on HIV preventions, and voluntary counseling and testing. They should be encouraged and assisted to disclose their HIV status whether positive or negative for them to access necessary support systems. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to explore youth’s experiences in disclosing their HIV positive status Methodology: This is an exploratory study that adopted a qualitative approach utilizing the phenomenological design to explore the experiences of HIV positive participants in disclosing their HIV positive status. The study was conducted in Likuni urban and Nambuma areas in Lilongwe district, Malawi. Ten HIV positive participants five males and five females between the ages 19-25 years were purposively sampled half from each area. A qualitative approach to data collection was done through face to face individual in-depth interviews. All the interviews were audio taped and transcribed verbatim using qualitative content analysis.
Telling one's HIV test result to others is a public health goal in HIV/AIDS prevention. It helps to engage in preventive behaviors and to access the necessary support for coping with serostatus or illness. It may motivate sexual partners to seek testing, change behavior and ultimately decrease transmission of HIV. Nonetheless the reality is that many HIV positive individuals do not disclose their results to their partners, families and social networks. The secrecy towards HIV results has contributed to the widespread stigmatization of HIV infection and continued spread of infection. As the global fight to HIV/AIDS progresses the importance of HIV disclosure is becoming more important. The book explored HIV positive status disclosure rate, the rezones behind non-disclosure of HIV positive results, and the outcomes of HIV status disclosure and identifies the role of gender in HIV results secrecy. Multilateral organizations, program planners’, policy makers and researchers in academic institutions are the intended beneficiaries of the book.
The United Nations Population Fund has declared HIV/AIDS is a young people''s disease. Individuals between the ages of 15 and 24 are infected every 14 seconds. Disclosure is an important factor in HIV/AIDS prevention interventions. Disclosure of ones HIV status enables for improved access to prevention and treatment programs provides increased opportunities for risk reduction and helps in planning for the future. This book explores the rates barriers and outcomes of HIV Sero-positive status disclosure in Bahirdar town with an insight to same at the national level.Therefore, the book is vital to provide valuable information for practitioners and experts on the rates, barriers and outcomes of HIV Sero-positive status disclosure in the country in general and in Amhara National Regional State in particular.
Despite the numerous benefits of HIV- positive status disclosure, studies have shown that the rates of disclosure among developing world are notably lower ranging from 16.7% to 86% compared to rates reported from the developed world (42% to 100%) (WHO, 2004). This research was a cross sectional study designed to determine the proportion of people living with HIV/AIDS who have disclosed their HIV-positive status to their sexual partners/family members and the reasons for non-disclosure in the Tano North District. Systematic random sampling method was used to draw 228 PLWHA for the study. The data collection tool was a structured questionnaire. Cross tabulations were done to determine the relationship between specific outcome variables and their predictors of disclosure. Chi-square tests were calculated and p-values of less than 0.05 were accepted as being statistical significant for all associations. The findings revealed that the proportion of HIV positive status disclosure to sexual partner(s)/family members was between 49.9% to 51.9%. Almost half (49.1%), of all persons interviewed during the study who had tested positive for HIV failed to disclose their HIV status.
HIV/AIDS is a major public health problem in Sub-Sahara Africa. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been found to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The virus has been reported to enhance HIV replication and accelerate the progression of HIV to AIDS. In Nigeria there is a dearth of information on the prevalence of Cytomegalovirus infection among HIV/AIDS patients. This study was designed to determine the prevalence rate as well as risk factors for CMV infection among HIV/AIDS patients in Ilorin, Nigeria. A cross sectional study was carried out among consecutively recruited HIV sero-positive patients attending the HAART clinic at U.I.T.H, Ilorin between October 2008 to September 2009. A volume of 5 ml blood sample was collected from each consenting participant as well as age and sex matched HIV sero-positive control group . The sera was assayed for CMV IgG/IgM using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). A semi-structured pre-tested questionnaire was also used to assess the risk factors for CMV infection among HIV sero-positive participants
The emergence of liver diseases as one of the major causes of death in people infected with HIV has paralleled the introduction of more effective anti retroviral therapies. HIV/AIDS induced lipid profile alteration has been proven to be a common problem in HIV/AIDS. Studies were carried out to determine the effects of anti retroviral treatment on liver enzymes of patients and evaluate the changes in lipid profile and body mass index (BMI) in HIV/AIDS patients on anti retroviral and anti-tuberculosis therapies. Results showed that highly active anti retroviral therapy is associated with low hepatotoxicity at therapy initiation, regardless of drug class or combination. There is a positive linear relationship between duration of treatment and concentration of transaminases over the years. There is a significant positive correlation between CD4+ counts and BMI in HIV positive patients on treatment. Tuberculosis worsens the immune suppression caused by HIV and enhances HIV-induced lipid profile changes. Anti retroviral drugs when coupled to anti tuberculosis induces complex lipid profile and BMI alterations. These results suggest a need for routine laboratory and dietary monitoring.
Most of the studies done in the field of HIV were focused around patients who are taking Anti Retro viral drugs .There are very limited number of studies are available for patients who are not under the treatment of Anti- Retro viral drugs. This work incorporates most of the recent findings that are relevant to the HIV/AIDS patients who are not an Anti-Retro Viral drugs. While formulating the health policies, it has been deemed necessary about that the clear understanding of the demographic profile and socio economic status of the people who are affected by the disease. This book deals with the demographic profile of HIV/AIDS patients ,route of transmission of HIV among the patients, Behavioural pattern of the patients, discordant couples ,hygienic practises followed by the patients, clinical profile of the patients and prevalence of opportunistic infections among them.So this will give the clear idea about the profile of the HIV/AIDS patients who are not on Anti- Retroviral drugs in Chennai, India.
HIV infected patients have been shown to be at an increased risk of developing lymphomas. With a rising incidence and prevalence of HIV infections especially in Sub-Saharan Africa where over 60% of the HIV-positive patients in the world is found, this would certainly have a bearing on HIV/AIDS-associated conditions, lymphomas inclusive. Assessment of the epidemiological, clinical and biological aspects of AIDS-related lymphomas in Cameroon, a developing country in Sub-Saharan Africa has been of interest. The analysis at the Hematologic Unit of the University Teaching Hospital in Yaounde, Cameroon, where most of these patients are seen, unveiled findings similar to several other studies on the same subject in other countries. This study offers basic information for medical students, doctors and researchers interested in AID-related lymphomas in Cameroon.