Shook Over Hell – Post Traumatic Stress, Vietnam, & the Civil War (Paper)
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that can develop after exposure to one or more traumatic events. It is a severe and ongoing emotional reaction to extreme psychological trauma, such as threat to life, being a victim of crime or sexual assault, witnessing someone's death, or a threat to one's physical and/or psychological integrity. The new edition updated throughout, presents information in a helpful, practical, and accessible way that will be helpful to survivors, and their family and friends. The book begins with a description of PTSD and other related problems, often experienced by survivors, a short history of the developments in the field, information on common responses to trauma, theory, assessment, treatment and research findings. Further chapters reflect new theoretical thinking and directions in the field of trauma including post-traumatic growth following adversity. New chapters to this edition address the impact of traumatic bereavement, t
Attentional biases for trauma-relevant information are considered to be a feature of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In a systematic review of the empirical evidence, this book offers a critical analysis of the existence and nature of attentional biases in PTSD across studies that have employed a range of experimental paradigms. Following this review, an empirical study is described investigating attentional biases for trauma-related stimuli following brain injury, and the relationship with post-traumatic stress symptoms and memory for the traumatic event. The study was undertaken to further explore the hypothesis that implicit memory is a mechanism for PTSD following brain injury, when there is typically impaired or absent memory for the event. Three groups of patients were compared within one month to two years of the traumatic event: patients who sustained a traumatic brain injury following a road traffic accident (RTA) (n = 11), patients who had experienced a non-traumatic brain injury (n = 15), and patients with an orthopaedic injury following a RTA (n = 15). The findings and limitations of the study are discussed.
Recent advances in psychological research indicate that traumatic events can have effects on the victims, perpetrators and those who witness them. The key concept is that no one sees a disaster and is untouched by it. The Kenyan post election violence of 2007/2008 was sudden, completely unpredictable and at least beyond normal range of one`s psychological defense system irrespective of age, sex and status. This may have created a sense of vulnerability and anxiety that may put the children at risk of long term psychological difficulties. The study in this publication evaluates the traumatic experiences of those who were exposed to post election violence in Kenya in 2007/2008 (primary survivors), those who witnessed the same (secondary survivors) and PTSD among the survivors. Interventions have also been highlighted to assist survivors lead productive lives.
This research work reviews the theoretical background of attributional styles and provides a comprehensive account of existing assessment methods. It offers a critique of the Attributional Style Questionnaire, one of the best known assessment tools in this field, based on quantitative as well as qualitative data gathered from clinical and non-clinical samples. Furthermore, the author describes the process of validation of the Depressive Attributions Questionnaire in individuals with Depression, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and non-clinical subjects. This new and easy to use measure has clinical and research potential as it offers specificity, predictive power, and correlates with other relevant factors, such as symptom severity, frequency of rumination, frequency and intensity of traumatic experiences, and post-traumatic cognitions. Finally, the author highlights possible future directions for the development of methods to assess attributions.
This text presents the wide range of traumatic experiences that sometimes lead to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, whether neurological in origin (e.g. Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease), arising from a road traffic collision (e.g. head or brain injury), natural or unnatural disaster, or from trauma arising from chronic disease or illness (e.g. cancer). The treatment process involves clinical interviews, and psychological and neuropsychological testing that requires detailed knowledge of neuroanatomy to understand the brain and its functions. Medico-legal reporting is now a significant part of clinical work and is highlighted by courtroom etiquette.
Weber, D. L. (2004). Event-related potential indicesof attention and memory in post-traumatic stressdisorder. Ph.D. Thesis, School of Psychology, TheFlinders University of South Australia, GPO Box 2100,Adelaide SA 5001, Australia.Primary Supervisor: C. Richard Clark, Ph.D.;Co-Supervisor: Alexander C. McFarlane, BMBS, MD.This dissertation used advanced neuroimaging methodsto investigate cognitive processes in post-traumaticstress disorder (PTSD). After publication of earlierwork, we and several other groups replicated andextended findings of abnormal attention fornon-traumatic information in PTSD. This thesisdeveloped this area of work in two ways: (a) it used event-related potentials recorded from a dense scalptopography (using 128 scalp electrodes) and newmethods of topographic analysis, and (b) it examinedseveral components of cognitive function in PTSD,including selective attention, working memory, andtarget detection.
Phobias are the most common form of anxiety disorder, but they are treatable. As part of the computer science field, virtual reality offers an alternative to standard therapy for mental health disorders that immerses patients into interactive, three-dimensional worlds. These virtual worlds expose humans to objects and/or situations that may be unlikely or impossible in the real world. This book will provide a step-by-step process for applying user-centered design techniques to the development of a software application for the treatment of a mental health disorder, specifically post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
North Central New Mexico (the Valley) has the highest per capita accidental drug overdose death rate in the United States: From 42 to 72 per 100,000 from 1995 to 2006; the USA rate is about 5 per 100,000. This book examines the social forces – race, religion, class, and gender structures – that underpin the epidemic of overdose deaths in the Valley. The 34 interviews of active drug users and 10 interviews of family members and professionals are iteratively analyzed via sociological concepts and literature – Anomic Suicide, post-Marxism, current sociological drug addiction theory, colonialism, historical/cultural trauma, racial and ethnic inequality, and autoethnography. Research design employed both qualitative and quantitative data from the New Mexico Office of the Medical Investigator. This mixed method allowed for the triangulation of disparate data. Amongst the profiles of suicide and overdose victims significant overlap was found. Colonization and street-level trauma appear to create a variant of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder termed Cultural-post traumatic stress disorder resulting in high incidence of morbidity and mortality amongst Hispanics in the Valley.
Stress-restress evokes a complex neurobiological response in the hippocampus involving neuro-excitatory and neurotoxic pathways, as well as neuroinhibitory and neuroprotective responses to chronic stress.One of these changes involves a long-lasting increase in hippocampal iNOS activity that is accompanied by a reactive downregulation of hippocampal NMDA receptors and dysregulation of inhibitory GABA pathways. These perturbations may have importance in explaining the increasing evidence for stress-related hippocampal degenerative pathology and cognitive deficits seen in patients with PTSD. Nitric oxide thus plays a major role in the pathophysiology of PTSD, thus presenting an area of major therapeutic opportunity for this mental illness.
Traumatic stress and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are rampant in contemporary culture. This study assessed the similarities and differences among contemporary treatment modalities, including Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing, Structured Intervention for Trauma for Children, Adolescents and Parents, Hypnosis, and Curanderismo, a Mesoamerican traditional treatment modality which contains elements of practice similar to Transpersonal Psychology for the treatment of PTSD. In this heuristic study, data was collected in urban settings in the United States and urban, rural,and jungle settings in Mexico and Guatemala. This study includes description of the therapeutic use of the temazcal, a Mesoamerican sweat lodge, limpias, a ritualized clearing of the subtle energy field, the medicinal and spiritual applications of herbalism, shamanic ritual, and the platica, a specific and highly interpersonal counseling style employed by curanderos. Results produced the development of an integrated healing model to reflect the positive aspects of all researched modalities toward efficacious treatments for traumatic stress and PTSD.
Venlafaxine Hydrochloride is an oral antidepressant agent of the Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor class. Venlafaxine Hydrochloride has been studied for the treatment of panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and the treatment of hot flashes in patients who cannot or do not want to take hormone replacement therapy. The dose of Venlafaxine hydrochloride ranges from 75 to 225 mg three times a day and it undergoes extensive first pass metabolism hence it has only 45% bioavaibility. The short half life of the drug 5 hr indicates the need for modified release dosage form. Venlafaxine HCl was chosen as model drug with an aim to developed mucoadhesive buccal tablet that minimize dose related side effects and reducing the dosing frequency of drug and finally improve the bioavaibility.