For the past four decades, HIV/AIDS epidemic has grown and become generalized in most of sub-Saharan Africa countries, cohabiting couples contribute significant fraction of transmission. However, majority of them do not know their HIV sero-status or test by proxy. We promoted uptake of HIV couple counselling and testing services in northern Tanzania to understand prevelance and determinants of HIV infection among couples presenting for services. We found that prevalence of HIV discordance was high in Moshi and Arusha towns; and positively associated with age and age difference between partners. In such unions, the risk of HIV infection to the uninfected partner increases. We recommend promotion of couples counselling and testing services by using different media to as strategy to maximize access of ART for prevention purposes among discordant couples.
Understanding and monitoring the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among premarital clients and discordant rate among premarital couples and applying specific interventions targeted at this group could bring dual benefit as it prevents both heterosexual and vertical transmission of the disease. 8.2% of premarital VCT clients included in the current study were sero positive for HIV. 6.5% of premarital VCT couples were found to be sero discordant, while concordant negative and concordant positive accounted for 92.0% and 1.4% respectively. Both HIV sero positivity and discordance were relatively higher among those who previously separated/divorced and widowed partners. So, don’t you think that exerting special efforts to make premarital couples aware of their own and their partners’ sero status before engagement is imperative to their future healthy life and the future of the nations?
Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common opportunistic infection among HIV-infected and one of the major global public health challenges of this era.In Nepal, the burden of TB among HIV infected had been seen range from 10% - 20 % mainly the people of productive age. This study was designed to assess the public health burden of opportunistic TB infection among HIV infected. Information was collected from 144 HIV/AIDS patient who had visited the ART clinic of Bharatpur Hospital, Chitwan during the period of 10th May to 30th May 2012. Study showed the 9.7 percent prevalence of opportunistic TB among HIV infected and extra pulmonary TB rate was higher. The status of TB co-infection during the diagnosed HIV infected period was 28.4 percent including prevalence TB cases. The common health problems faced by HIV-TB co-infected were weakness , fever, weight loss and cough. Having history of TB infection before HIV diagnosis were at 4.8 times greater risk of getting opportunistic TB. Access to health related local non government organization in the community had a great impact for significantly low risk of HIV-TB co-infection.
Injecting drug users (IDUs) are at risk of infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). Independently, each of these viruses is a serious threat to health, with HIV ravaging the body’s immune system, and HCV causing cirrhosis, liver cancer and liver failure. Furthermore, co-infection with HIV/HCV weakens the response to antiretroviral therapy in HIV patients. IDUs with HIV/HCV co-infection are at a 20 times higher risk of having liver-related morbidity and mortality than IDUs with HIV alone. In Viet Nam, studies to ascertain the prevalence of HIV in IDUs have found high rates, but little is known about their HCV status. Therefore this book provides IDU HIV/HCV co-infection rates, in addition to the prevalence of HCV and HIV, and identifies factors associated with these viruses among 455 IDUs at four drug treatment centers in Ha Noi, Viet Nam. The availability of information about HIV/HCV co-infection in this vulnerable group will be of benefit to investigators and programmers addressing the problems of identifying and providing more appropriate treatment to HIV-positive IDUs.
HIV/AIDS is a major public health problem in Sub-Sahara Africa. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been found to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The virus has been reported to enhance HIV replication and accelerate the progression of HIV to AIDS. In Nigeria there is a dearth of information on the prevalence of Cytomegalovirus infection among HIV/AIDS patients. This study was designed to determine the prevalence rate as well as risk factors for CMV infection among HIV/AIDS patients in Ilorin, Nigeria. A cross sectional study was carried out among consecutively recruited HIV sero-positive patients attending the HAART clinic at U.I.T.H, Ilorin between October 2008 to September 2009. A volume of 5 ml blood sample was collected from each consenting participant as well as age and sex matched HIV sero-positive control group . The sera was assayed for CMV IgG/IgM using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). A semi-structured pre-tested questionnaire was also used to assess the risk factors for CMV infection among HIV sero-positive participants
A geographic concentration of HIV/AIDS epidemic in Nepal. The immediate and vigorous action must be taken to prevent further spread of HIV among the high-risk groups and stop the infection from taking a foothold in the larger most at risk population. The HIV epidemic continues to be characterized by high prevalence among various sub-groups whose sexual or drug use behaviors places them at risk of HIV. IDUs, FSWs and their clients, MSM and returnee migrants have higher prevalence levels than the general population. The key interventions in risk groups were directed towards prevention of transmission, reduction of risk factors/behavior and focus on promotion of safe sexual behavior through health education, care and support, and rehabilitation.
HIV infection is very high among the Islands of Lake Victoria of Tanzania. It was revealed that Lukuba Islanders were aware of the presence of HIV/ STIs infections, and aware of condoms use as one of the protection ways from HIV infections. Condoms availability, accessibility and affordability were not a problem on the Island. Nevertheless, condom use realized to be very low and inconsistent among the Island dwellers; alcoholism, cleansing culture, irresponsible sexual behaviors, men dominance in sex decision making and low income among women blamed to fuel the emergence of new STIs infections including HIV. In view of these, there is a need for regular voluntary testing,counseling and treatment for STIs and provision of ARVs to people living with HIV, and rethink of designing messages promoting condom use that reflects the contextual hindrances to condom use in these communities. In these regards, there is a need of enhancing HIV/AIDS and STIs outreach preventions interventions using water-boat mobile clinics. This should go hand in hand with empowering women in order for them to have negotiation capabilities in sex relations and take legal action in case they are sexually abused
There is a rising prevalence of blood borne infections such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) world wide and especially so in developing countries. This study was conducted to establish the prevalence rate of HIV amongst pregnant women and to determine the risk to which their neonates are exposed to in this centre. Anonymous and unlinked blood samples of 277 pregnant women attending antenatal clinic between the period of January 2005 - December 2006 at the Amassoma General Hospital in Southern Ijaw local government area of Bayelsa State, located in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria were tested for HIV-1. They were aged between 15 and 44 years. The prevalence of HIV-1 in these pregnant women was 3.96%. The women responded to counseling and other preventive measures to ensure that the risk of vertical transmission was low.
In the Sub Saharan Africa and on global scope, Uganda has an outstanding account of HIV/AIDS infection. HIV/AIDS is a chronic infection which requires huge resources in its management, besides knowledge on the rate of HIV infection transition from one stage to another is scanty. This paper sheds light on the estimates of HIV infection progression within resource limited settings and its co-factors among children. The paper is framed in lifecourse theoretical perspective to appraise the chronological effect of demographic and socioeconomic factors on the lifecourse of HIV-AIDS. Using Kaplan Meier and Cox proportional hazard model as methods of analysis, the paper indicates that, the duration of exposure to HIV infection contributed in each stage decreases with progressive amplification in the infection, increasingly short expectation of life once a child progresses from asymptomatic stage. Thus, to optimize survival time on HIV infection lifecourse, HIV/AIDS care and treatment should strive to maintain HIV infection within asymptomatic levels yet initiating treatment on the earliest time possible.
This study examines the risk factors related to HIV infection among 400 female sex workers (FSWs) aged 16-57 years in Vinh Long Proovince, Viet Nam. It uses secondary data from a cross-sectional study about knowledge, attitude, beliefs, and practice on HIV/AIDS. The main purpose is to determine the impacts of risk factors on HIV infection. Binary logistic regression showed perception of risk, perceived pay value, and using drug were significantly associated with HIV infection. FSWs who used drug were 32 times more likely to be infected with HIV than their counterparts. FSWs who reported that they had high risk of HIV infection were more likely to be infected with HIV than the ones reported that they had low risk or no risk of HIV infection. In addition, low income FSWs were more likely to be infected with HIV than high income FSWs. The findings suggested setting up a Drop-in-Center for FSWs who come to share both difficulties and experiences to protect themselves from HIV infection. Furthermore, strengthening the peer educators’ channels to provide HIV/AIDS information, knowledge, living skills and condom, needles and syringes directly to FSWs is strongly recommended.
Death rates among children who are severely malnourished are about six times greater than among those who are healthy and well nourished in the same population, and twenty to fifty times greater than the rate in rich and prosperous countries,even this figure will be high among HIV population.This book has a lot of information on prevalence of malnutrition among HIV infected african children and different factors which predispose young children with HIV/AIDS in sub Saharan Africa.
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. With the advent of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) pandemic, the problem of TB has got worse. The incidence of TB in patients with HIV infection / AIDS is nearly 500 times higher than in the general population. In HIV infected patients tuberculosis may frequently present in sites other than the lungs, lymphadenitis being the most common but it may be in the bone, liver, or in almost any organ of the body. Disseminated tuberculosis (DTB) is also more common in patients with HIV infection. Diagnosis of TB is also difficult in patients with HIV infection as rate of sputum AFB positivity is less and chest X-Ray changes are also atypical. The prevalence of extrapulmonary TB is also higher in patients with HIV infection were obtaining clinical samples is difficult. The present work is done to evaluate role of Mycobacteremia, which is a simple and convenient test done by blood culture using MB\Bact method, in diagnosis of tuberculosis with or without HIV infection.
Pakistan still has a window of opportunity to act decisively to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS. According to UNAIDS estimates HIV prevalence is 0.1 percent among adult population in Pakistan. The officially reported cases are, however, much lower than the estimated cases. As in many countries, underreporting is due mainly to the social stigma attached to the infection, limited surveillance and voluntary counseling and testing systems, as well as the lack of knowledge among the general population and health practitioners. Until recently, Pakistan was classified as a low-prevalence country with many risk factors that could lead to the rapid development of an epidemic. The presence of significant risk factors such as the very low use of condoms among vulnerable populations including female sex workers (FSW), men who have sex with men (MSMs), truckers, and Hijras, low use of sterile syringes among injecting drug users (IDUs), inadequate blood transfusion screening and high level of professional donors, large numbers of migrants and refugees may lead to an epidemic situation of HIV/AIDS in Pakistan.
Injecting drug use which is the prime contributor to the overall HIV epidemic in a country is rapidly spreading in Bangladesh. Although Bangladesh is experiencing lower rate of HIV prevalence, risk behaviors like needle sharing and unprotected sex among IDUs facilitate to build up a ‘critical mass’ of infections within needle sharing and sexual networks, from where HIV can be spread. The objective of this study was to investigate the current knowledge and awareness of IDUs about the risk of HIV infection. This is a cross-sectional study among 60 IDUs from three drop-in-centers of Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh from June to August of 2007. Among the 60 respondents, 58(96.7%) heard about HIV/AIDS. 55(91.7%) IDUs knew that unprotected sex is a cause of transmission of HIV. 52(86.7%) IDUs mentioned about needle sharing. 35(58.4%) IDUs share needle during injecting drug of which 31(51.7%) admitted that it is not safe to share. IDUs are reluctant to apply their knowledge about HIV into the practice of drug use which put them under tremendous risk of acquiring HIV infection.