Sex workers are the most marginalised and stigmatised group of women. The nature of the industry of “selling sex” to multiple sexual partners has a ripple effect on the health of people involved in the sex work cycle. Sex workers are considered to be a high risk group in the acquisition and transmission of STIs which include Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Human Papillomavirus (HPV). Out of fear of being ridiculed at health care facilities, are unable to visit health facilities for routine health check-ups resulting in delayed health intervention. The monograph seeks to describe the prevalence of abnormal pap-smear among sex workers in Hillbrow, Johannesburg, South Africa. Additionally, describe the difference between Pap smear results between HIV positive and negative sex workers. However, further studies are required to explore the sexual health of sex workers that may influence a review on the National Cervical Cancer Screening Policy to take into consideration the needs of high risk population, such as sex workers.
In order to evaluate smoking status in Macedonian workers’ population, we performed a cross sectional, questionnaire-based study including 753 randomly selected workers. The prevalence of current smokers among all workers was 35.4%, ranging from 30.2% in office workers to 43.5% in construction workers. It did not significantly differ from the prevalence recorded in 2005 (36.8%). The prevalence of ex-smokers among all workers was 10.5%, ranging from 8.4% in construction workers to 12.1% in office workers, and showing minor increase with respect to 2005. The prevalence of passive smokers among all workers was 29.1%, ranging from 26.2% in food processing workers to 32.9% in agricultural workers, remaining similar to their prevalence established in the 2005 study. Our findings indicated high prevalence of current and passive smokers, as well as low prevalence of ex-smokers among examined workers. There were minor changes in their prevalence with respect to the findings from the 2005 study. The results obtained also indicated a need of stricter implementation of anti-smoking activities which will be targeted to all workers.
Most cervical cancer cases are diagnosed at an advanced stage as cytology based screening programmes are ineffective in developing countries. This study was done to look for carcinoma cervix and its precursors by visual inspection with Lugol’s iodine (VILI), visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) & Pap smear, and to analyze their sensitivity, specificity & predictive values using colposcopic directed biopsy as reference. 350 women were subjected to Pap smear, VIA, VILI and colposcopy. Cervical biopsy & endocervical curettage was taken from patients positive on any of these and in 10% of negative cases. Pap smear was abnormal in 3.71%, including 2.85% low grade & 0.85% high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. 13% of patients were found to be positive by VIA & 11.71% were positive on VILI. Sensitivity for VIA, VILI & Pap smear was 89.5, 100 & 52.6 %, respectively, while the specificity for VIA, VILI & Pap smear was 91.2, 93.3 & 99.1%, respectively. Thus, in low resource settings, cervical cancer screening by Pap smear can be replaced by visual methods like VILI, which has the highest sensitivity (100%) to detect any grade of dysplasia, and a good specificity (93.3%).
Sexual Transmitted Diseases (STDs) are often high among members of society's least powerful groups such as Female commercial sex workers who have low utilization of health care services. Four hundred twenty eight female sex workers aged between 15 and 49 years were selected by cluster sampling method from three areas in Gondar town. Data collection was made using a pre-tested questionnaire which consisted socio demography characteristics of the respondents, current as well as the past one year experience of 3 sexual transmitted disease symptoms. Of 428 Female Commercial Sex Workers interviewed, 123 (28.7%, n=428) subjects had history of at least one STD symptom during the 12-month prior to the interview. More than half 53(56.4%) and 45(60.8%) of the study subjects were sought treatment from self care for abnormal vaginal discharge and dysuria symptoms respectively. The occurrence of sexual transmitted disease symptoms among the respondents is likely indicative of the existence of high prevalence of sexual transmitted diseases among FCSWs. Self care treatments are looked upon as the resources most readily available to the FCSWs with sexual transmitted diseases symptoms.
The study was carried out to understand the clients’ attitude and behaviour towards sex workers and the possible risk of HIV/AIDS/STIs. The study was conducted among the sex workers. The sex workers were interviewed in this study ranged age was between 23 and 27 years and between 18-22 years mostly. When the sex workers were grouped together, 34.17% were unmarried, whereas 33.33% married. Among the street and hotel sex workers, it was mainly the clients who played active role in sexual performance, but in brothel the clients had less control over sexual performance due to brothel sex workers’ organizational existence and unity. About 37% respondents had experience of forced sex by clients, such as threaten to physical torture (61.36%), beating (29.54%), and snatched valuables (27.27%). And 29.17% of the total respondents had experience of unusual sex practice, such as group sex (85.71%), anal sex (8.57%) and oral sex (5.71%). The Study found that all the respondents were suffering from various symptoms of STIs, such as pain at intercourse (40%), itchy/rash on genital (25.83%), discharge of fluids from genital (23.33%), and pain in lower abdomen (22.5%).
Cervical cancer is still a burden in our subregion. In the absence of effective screening programs, opportunistic screening remains the mainstay of early diagnosis. The postnatal clinic check-up may be the only window of opportunity to screen women who meet the inclusion criteria. In this study 3% of postnatal women had abnormal Pap smear. Colposcopy evaluation however, did not show abnormal findings. The patients are still on follow up. This study also shows that awareness on cervical cancer is low. Although 13% of the women had heard of cervical cancer, only 5% had a fair idea what it was. This is instructive considering that 51% of the women studied had tertiary education. An unforeseen challenge in the course of the study was the reluctance of women to voluntarily accept to be screened even when it was free.
This book presents analysis of data collected from patients of a safety-net healthcare system in Fort Worth, Texas. It examined three objectives, including explaining the utilization of Pap smear tests among the low-income women, by ascertaining the determinants of using these services. The existence of a race/ethnicity/immigration status effect was found. Anglos were more likely to have had a Pap smear, followed by African Americans, Hispanic immigrants and finally by, Hispanic Americans. The persistence of the race/ethnicity/immigration status effect may be explained by several factors, including cultural differences between the different groups studied. The race/ethnicity/immigration status effect on Pap smear screening changed with the introduction of age, usual source of care, check-up for current pregnancy, and having multiple competing needs for food, clothing and housing into the models studied. The findings may be attributed to the use of a hospital-based sample who had regular access to subsidized health insurance from a publicly funded safety-net healthcare network system. Publicly funded health programs for underserved populations should be maintained and strengthened.
The proposed system "Cells Analysis System for Microscopic Pap Smear Images (CASMPSI)" gives techniques related to Pap smear microscopic image analysis. Some image processing techniques have been used to detect cell's nucleus area and the surrounding cytoplasm. The system was designed to extract each single nucleus belong to a cell individually, and in case of clustered cells (i.e., cancerous cells) the whole cluster area is extracted as one piece. Two kinds of features are proposed for cell classification they are geometrical and texture features. The common aim of all these techniques is to develop an automated Pap smear analysis system which can help cyto-technician to reduce time they spent for slide examination in Pap screening process.
Cancer cervix is the 2nd most common cancer in women accounting for 68.5% of all gynecological malignancies.The estimated new cancer cervix cases per year are 500,000 of which 79% occur in the developing countries.Cervical dysplasia does not cause many symptoms;therefore, regular screening and early diagnosis are important. The single most important step that a woman can take to prevent cervical cancer is a pap smear, which is a gentle scraping at the cervix during a gynecological examination.To judge the merits of a pap smear,Colposcopy provides a technique for visualization of cervix and vagina to examine physiological and pathological changes of squamocolumnar junction and select the optimal site for biopsy.Refined screening techniques and improved patient education have contributed to an increased awareness and early detection of pre-invasive lesions of the female genital tract and in particular those of cervix.The study is aimed to assess the predictive value of Pap smear and Colposcopy in cervical cancer detection programmes and further suggesting that cervical cancer is preventable and is highly suitable for primary prevention.
Among air pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is one of the well known causes of respiratory diseases in human all over the world and has become a major problem of developing countries of South Asia such as Pakistan. A research based survey was conducted to find out PM effects on respiratory health of brick kiln workers in Jalalpur Jattan, Gujrat, Pakistan. Lung function of 156 workers employed in brick kilns, using spirometer by recording FVC, FEV1 and FEV1%, was examined during working hours. FVC and FEV1 were significantly lower than predicted for brick kiln workers and suggested a restrictive pattern. Average concentrations of both PM2.5 and PM10 in ambient air of each section of brick kilns, monitored by dust tracker, were above the NEQS standard values which can cause pulmonary diseases. There was a high prevalence of respiratory disease symptoms such as difficult breathing, chest pain and cough with sputum etc. found in brick kiln workers. Also high prevalence was noted for eye irritation, nasal congestion, fatigue and skin allergy etc. These findings of lung function decline in brick workers may suggest prevalence of occupational lung diseases.
Sasihitlu, a coastal area of Dakshina Kannada District, Karnataka, India, is known to have a large population of Hindus. The main source living is fishing. It has been observed that a large section of population is involved in habits like smoking, chewing quid and alcohol consumption. The purpose of this study was planned to evaluate prevalence of white lesions based on data such as distribution according to age, sex and intraoral locations and correlation with smokeless tobacco habits among population of Sasihitlu Village, Mukka, Dakshina Kannada District, Karnataka, India.
Present study focuses on socio-economic and demographic differentials and its linkages between smoking and use of smokeless tobacco with the prevalence of Tuberculosis and Asthma among smokers and users of smokeless tobacco in India. This study has utilized the data from third round of National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) conducted in 2005-06 in all 29 state of India. In order to accomplish the objectives dealing with the socio-economic and demographic differentials in tobacco use and prevalence of Tuberculosis and Asthma bivariate analysis and logistics regression analysis have been used. The study reveals that the prevalence of smoking among men is very high comparatively women in India; one third of men (34 percent) are smoking while only around 2 percent women are smoking. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco is around four times more among men than women; it is 37.4 percent among men and 9.6 percent among women. The study reveals that the overall prevalence of tuberculosis is 0.8 percent among smokers and 0.9 percent among users of smokeless. The prevalence of Asthma is 2.5 percent among smokers and 1.8 percent among users of smokeless.
The economic and political collapse of Zimbabwe resulted in the movement of women and men beyond their borders in search of better economic opportunities. The movement of Zimbabwean women has been accompanied by an outcry in neighbouring countries about their involvement in sex work. Contrary to the sensationalize views in the media and the public health discourse, this work highlights the experiences of Zimbabwean sex workers in South Africa, to understand how they engage with discourses in sex work and sexuality given the norms and mores that govern sexuality in the African context. The aim of this study is to bring to the fore trajectories, experiences and perceptions of migrant sex workers in Johannesburg. Using postmodern feminism the study is qualitative and employed ethnographic methods for data collection. The research was conducted in Diplomat Hotel, a hotel turned brothel on the periphery of Hillbrow, a residential area in Johannesburg. Using observation and informal interviews, the study explores Zimbabwean sex workers trajectories and perceptions of sex work. Findings show the tensions and contradictions as women negotiate, challenge and resist the whore label.
Pakistan still has a window of opportunity to act decisively to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS. According to UNAIDS estimates HIV prevalence is 0.1 percent among adult population in Pakistan. The officially reported cases are, however, much lower than the estimated cases. As in many countries, underreporting is due mainly to the social stigma attached to the infection, limited surveillance and voluntary counseling and testing systems, as well as the lack of knowledge among the general population and health practitioners. Until recently, Pakistan was classified as a low-prevalence country with many risk factors that could lead to the rapid development of an epidemic. The presence of significant risk factors such as the very low use of condoms among vulnerable populations including female sex workers (FSW), men who have sex with men (MSMs), truckers, and Hijras, low use of sterile syringes among injecting drug users (IDUs), inadequate blood transfusion screening and high level of professional donors, large numbers of migrants and refugees may lead to an epidemic situation of HIV/AIDS in Pakistan.