Many national as well as International Human Rights Organizations raised serious concerns and have criticized the Ethiopian government in regard to Human Rights violations during elections, which, in their view, have been directly related to the election process.However,Neither preemptive prevention mechanisms nor a governmental organization responsible for the election periods have established throughout history. The F.D.R.E constitution as well as other proclamations which were adopted for the protection of people’s Rights are not discriminatory on basis of time and especial times like that of Elections. However, policy gaps are evident in addressing Human Right protections. Customary laws and practices have serious impacts on Human Right protection at the level of implementation. This book evidences gaps between policy and implementation. It also forwards recommendation to address Human Right protections identified to ensure equal protection.
Contracts for the supply of digital content are fraught with legal issues extending beyond contract law. The contributions to this volume analyse the challenges and gaps in European Commission’s proposed Directive (COM(2015) 634 final) from the perspectives of contract law, copyright, and data protection.
The concept of vulnerability has not been unequivocally interpreted either in regional or in universal international legal instruments. This book analyses the work of the EU and the Council of Europe in ascertaining a clear framework or a set of criteria suitable to determine those who should be considered vulnerable and disadvantaged. It also explores the measures required to protect their human rights. Key questions can be answered by analysing the different methods used to determine the levels of protection offered by the two European systems. These questions include whether the Convention and the case law of the Strasbourg Court, the monitoring mechanisms of the Council of Europe, EU law and the case law of the European Court of Justice enhance the protection of vulnerable groups and expand the protection of their rights, or, alternatively, whether they are mainly used to fill in relatively minor gaps or occasional lapses in national rights guarantees. The analysis also shows the extent to which these two European systems provide analogous, or indeed divergent, standards and how any such divergence might be problematic in light of the EU accession to the European Convention on Human Rights.
This work is a legal study aimed at finding whether the content of complementary or ‘subsidiary protection’ at European Union level, given the wording of the Council Directive 2004/83/EC of 29 April 2004 on minimum standards for the qualification and status of third country nationals or stateless persons as refugees or as persons who otherwise need international protection and the content of the protection granted, comprehends also people fleeing armed conflicts and indiscriminate violence. The legal quagmire created by the Directive, aiming at offering protection to those facing ‘a serious and individual threat to a civilian’s life or person by reason of indiscriminate violence in situations of international or internal armed conflict’, will be analysed in the light of the two different readings of the protection afforded by Article 3 ECHR and Article 15 of the Qualification Directive, bearing in mind, on one hand, the recent rulings of the ECtHR concerning non-refoulement to a place torn by conflicts, indiscriminate violence and gross human rights violation, and, on the other, the general principle of EU legislation which requires that every norm has its efficacy or effet utile.
In the increasingly global economy and workplace, the difference in workplace privacy expectations and protections in the United States and Europe stand out. In the United States, privacy protections depend on whether employees have reasonable privacy expectations, but employers are relatively free to destroy actual expectations through notices. In Europe, workplace privacy is not conditioned on employee privacy expectations, but is protected as a matter of public policy. Thus, in Europe – where reasonable privacy expectations are not a condition to privacy protection – employees can actually and reasonably expect workplace privacy, and in the United States – where privacy protections depend on reasonable privacy expectations – employees cannot expect much privacy in practice. This book examines the underlying policy reasons and legal frameworks that control the extent to which employers may monitor their employees, including implications for multinational employers and employees in the United States and Europe.
In order to complete degrees faster, many nontraditional students enroll in Accelerated Learning (AL) programs where they often use communication software or devices, also called information communication technology (ICT). ICT literacy is the ability to use ICT appropriately to solve information problems. Gaps in ICT literacy can frustrate nontraditional students and distract them from learning course content. Due to AL programs‘ fast pace, there is little opportunity for students and educators to discover and fill ICT literacy gaps. Millions of nontraditional students enroll in programs designed for traditional students. Identifying ICT literacy gaps for students can help educators address specific academic needs. Identifying and bridging ICT literacy gaps is essential in preparing all students to succeed in the information age.
Earning gaps between natives and immigrants in Sweden have been a widely discussed issue in the literature. The previous studies that examined the wage gaps mostly focused on educational attainment, tenure, generation of immigrants and ethnic origins. The distribution of immigrants’ income within different labour market sectors is almost unexplored. The paper analyzes several determinants of income among natives and immigrants. The effect of education and origin within different labour market sectors is of particular interest. The study aims to reveal which sector has more possibilities of income generation for immigrants and whether the employment in the sector leads to diminishing income gaps among natives and immigrants.The effect of three-way interactions “origin * industry * education” is intented to shed light on income differentials within labour market sectors.The analysis should be helpful for people interested in demograhy and migration issues.