Health is one of the most important instruments that enhance human functionings. For that reason, it is reasonable to qualify health and access to it as a moral entitlement of all the citizens. From the moral equality argument it follows that all people, whether in Low or High Income Country deserve equal access to health care services. However, this is not the case, and seems not about to be so in the near future, especially for the citizens of Low Income Countries like Uganda. One sure reason why not all health needs of people can be met is scarcity of health resources, and this worse for the developing world. In response to scarcity of resources, QALYS method was devised to ensure that maximum health benefits are obtained from any available health resources.However, demands of social justice call for mitigation of QALY's extremism. But all the same, the current discourse that seek to find a solution Balancing QALY and substantive principles per se has an oversight - the impact of poverty on equity in health in Low Income Countries like Uganda.
The results of health technology assessment and cost-effectiveness analysis for particular different health technologies are relatively well defined in high-income countries, but little is known about these in low- and low-middle-income countries. However, there is a shortage of methodological guidance to adjust cost-effectiveness results from one to another country setting. This research is to compare the cost-effectiveness of a new hospital-based health technology of a low-middle-income country with a high-income country, to find the factors which systematically determine the difference in cost-effectiveness between high- and low-middle-income countries. A combination of primary data methods from population-based registration, administration, hospital-based, patient level data; and secondary data methods from academic and grey literature for the research in multiple fields of demography, epidemiology, clinical practice, patient characteristics, health services and health finance was all applied in this research to find the answer for the hypothesis of the cost-effectiveness of a new health technology in low-middle income countries is lower than that of high-income countries.
This article raises the problem of equity in the health system in Switzerland. Three dimensions of the concept of equity are taken into consideration: the inequality in the financing of the health system, the inequality in the distribution of the state of good health, and, finally, the iniquity in the access to health care. Some methodological developments are presented as well as the results. In conclusion we observe that the state of good health does not depend strongly on income but that it exists some iniquity in the access to health services from specialists and that the income inequality is increasing due to the financing of the health system.
This study addresses the question how income affects health care utilization by the population aged 50 and over in the United States and a number of European countries with varying health care systems. The probabilities that individuals receive several medical services (visits to general practitioner, specialist, dentist, inpatient, or outpatient services) are analyzed separately using probit models. In addition to controls for income and demographic characteristics, controls for health status (both subjective and objective measures of health) are used. We analyze how the relationship between income and health care utilization varies across countries and relate these cross country differences to characteristics of the health care system, i. e., per capita total and public expenditure on health care, gate-keeping for specialist care, and copayments.
High-rise housing for low-income people is a very controversial topic, with high-rise low-income housing failing in some countries and succeeding in others. Therefore, questions arise as to why some countries fail in high-rise low-income housing while others have succeeded using the same concept. The main objective of this book is to critically evaluate the Sri Lankan Government’s past and present housing policies, comparing them to local and international experiences of high-rise low-income housing, and to investigate whether high-rise housing is an appropriate city planning solution to the problem of the scarcity of housing for low-income people in Colombo.
Performance-Based Funding (PBF) has become increasingly popular in global health financing. PBF is defined as the transfer of resources for health on condition that measurable action will be taken to achieve predefined health system performance targets. Due to the apparent incentives that tailored resource transfers offer, PBF is increasingly promoted by leading global actors as a way to efficiently and effectively reform the way health systems are planned, financed, co-ordinated and steered, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. The concept of PBF is premised on the notion that even though resources are limited in low income countries, it must be possible to improve the effectiveness of the health sector by increasing performance in terms of service quality, service utilization as well as improving staff motivation. Evidence from Zimbabwe points to PBF implementation as an effective way of moving low resourced countries towards achieving sustainable Development Goals.
Cervical cancer is a major public health problem of women in low income countries like Nigeria. Globally 1.4 million women live with the disease and 7 million people may have precancerous changes. Eighty percent of the 493,000 annual new cases and 80-85% of annual deaths from cervical cancer occur in Low Income Countries (LIC) having less than 5% of the global cancer resources. In Nigeria 9,922 cases are diagnosed annually and 8,030 die. These figures will increase by about 25% in 10 years. The incidence rate ranging from 25 to 30 per 100,000 women is 5-6 times higher than the incidence in High Income Countries. Affected women come with advanced disease posing great challenge to the struggling health system. The disease is considered a ‘Sexually Transmitted disease’ with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) as the necessary cause. Nigerian women of all ages have a high HPV prevalence of 26.3% due to many determinants and co-factors like early sexual debut, multiple sex partners, low condom use, high parity, high incidence of other Sexually Transmitted Infections including HIV, poverty and illiteracy.This book will serve as guide for planners of national policy on cervical cancer prevention
The emerging FDI and growth literatures stipulate that the relationship between FDI and growth is highly heterogeneous across countries and thus have not won a common consensus among economists. Therefore, this study analyzes the relationship between FDI and economic growth in 31 SSA countries using panel data from 1992 to 2009 obtained from World Development Indicators and World Bank's Worldwide Governance Indicators of 2010 using system GMM econometric technique. As the panel cointegration test shows existence of long run relationship between FDI and economic growth, the causality test is undertaken and the finding shows that the causality is unidirectional, causality running from FDI to growth in the entire sample countries. However when the countries are split into two: 19 low income countries and 12 middle income countries, the causality result is the same as that of all sample countries in the case of low income countries whereas bidirectional causality is evidenced in the case of middle income countries.
Uganda like many low income countries still struggles to provide health care for a significant proportion of the population despite enacting several policies and embarking on different economic reforms. A large number of people are facing catastrophic expenditures as they seek good and better health leading them into dire poverty. There is dis-proportionality between the country''s burden of disease and the finances available to take care of it. Analyzing Uganda''s health financing policies and system is a necessary initial step for improving its situation; it identifies the policy and practice gaps, which is necessary in making an optimum and relevant choice of reforms. This book initially contextualizes health financing in low income countries and then looks at the status of the health system in Uganda. These two chapters form a basis for the analysis of the health financing system of Uganda that follows thereafter. It concludes by drawing some lessons and recommendations for Uganda.
Child mortality is one of the most important measures of a country's development. Child mortality remains very high for most countries more so in developing countries from causes that can be easily prevented by simple means at community level. These measures coupled with availability of essential drugs contribute drastically to the reduction of childhood deaths. This book reviews some of these measures and is especially useful for students pursuing training in public and community health. The author has used these notes in training students pursuing training in public health with very good results and it is hoped that other students would greatly benefit from them.
Housing is a basic need and critical issue in case of sheltering the low income people. Generally migrants and the local poor are considered as low income group. Low income people have limited earning and they cannot afford rental housing as their major portion of income goes to purpose of food. Affordable housing is a critical issue in view of the low income of people. Majority of low income people are living in poor quality housing where the absence of basic services and facilities are significant. In this study the characteristics of low income housing is specifically examined in respect of housing condition. The issue of affordability of low income people is examined in terms of their income and expenditure for purpose of rent and utility services and facilities. If the expenditure of rent and utility services is more than 30% of their total income then housing is not affordable for the low income people. In this study, effort is given to identify the causes of mobility and locational choice of the low income people. Frequent movement is considered as a barrier on the way of continuous income and affordable housing.
Nutrition in health and illness has been offered to medical and health students. The course on nutrition aims to provide students with the comprehensive understanding of nutrition on health and illness issues with particular emphasis to current and emerging nutritional problems of low income countries. The book content in general tries to cover, nutrition and health, diet and diseases (both communicable and non-communicable), dietary guidelines, nutritional requirement at critical periods, nutritional assessment, community based acute malnutrition, the National Nutrition Strategy, Essential Nutrition Actions, food & nutrition security and the different programs and guidelines available in the country. Therefore, this material was compiled to address the needs of both medical and health sciences students of higher education (University).
This book discusses possibilities for, and obstacles to, economic development in lower income countries in Asia, Latin America, and Sub-Saharan Africa. It examines how lower income countries might 'catch up' and advantages and disadvantages of the lateness of poor countries in the development process.