This article raises the problem of equity in the health system in Switzerland. Three dimensions of the concept of equity are taken into consideration: the inequality in the financing of the health system, the inequality in the distribution of the state of good health, and, finally, the iniquity in the access to health care. Some methodological developments are presented as well as the results. In conclusion we observe that the state of good health does not depend strongly on income but that it exists some iniquity in the access to health services from specialists and that the income inequality is increasing due to the financing of the health system.
This study addresses the question how income affects health care utilization by the population aged 50 and over in the United States and a number of European countries with varying health care systems. The probabilities that individuals receive several medical services (visits to general practitioner, specialist, dentist, inpatient, or outpatient services) are analyzed separately using probit models. In addition to controls for income and demographic characteristics, controls for health status (both subjective and objective measures of health) are used. We analyze how the relationship between income and health care utilization varies across countries and relate these cross country differences to characteristics of the health care system, i. e., per capita total and public expenditure on health care, gate-keeping for specialist care, and copayments.
Learn valuable lessons from the newly successful private equity players in China and explore the challenges and opportunities offered in Chinese markets The first book to deal with private equity finance in China, Private Equity in China: Challenges and Opportunities provides much-needed guidance on an investment concept that has so far proved elusive in Asia. Focusing on the opportunities that the Chinese finance market offers to private equity firms, the book shows how these firms can strategically position themselves in order to maximize success in this new marketplace. Private Equity in China includes in-depth case studies illustrating both successful and failed ventures by private equity firms operating in China, outlining the challenges faced by private equity firms in setting up new funds. It contains a collection of valuable experience and insights about acquiring companies and turning them around essential for any firm currently operating in, or considering entering, the Chinese market. Discusses the challenges faced by private equity firms in China including setting up the initial fund, fund raising, deal sourcing, deal execution, and monitoring and exit strategies Provides key insights drawn from keen observations and knowledge of the more mature private equity market in Western countries, analyzing the way forward for the Chinese private equity industry Discusses the role of renminbi-denominated funds in the development of the private equity industry in China Breaking new ground in exploring and explaining the private equity market in China, the book offers incredible new insight into how equity companies can thrive in the Chinese marketplace.
This comprehensive textbook analyzes the ethical issues of health and health care in global perspective. Ideal for students of public health, medicine, nursing and allied health professions, public policy, and ethics, the book helps students in all these areas to develop important competencies in their chosen fields. Applying a comparative, or multicultural, approach, the book compares different perspectives on ethical issues in various countries and cultures, such as informed consent, withholding or withdrawing treatment, physician-assisted suicide, reproductive health issues, research with human subjects, the right to health care, rationing of limited resources, and health system reform. Applying a transnational, or cross-border, approach, the book analyzes ethical issues that arise from the movement of patients and health professionals across national borders, such as medical tourism and transplant tourism, ethical obligations to provide care for undocumented aliens, and the “brain drain” of health professionals from developing countries. Comprehensive in scope, the book includes selected readings which provide diverse perspectives of people from different countries and cultures in their own words. Each chapter contains an introductory section centered on a specific topic and explores the different ways in which the topic is viewed around the globe. Ethics in Health Services and Policy is designed to promote student participation and offers methods of activity-based learning, including factual scenarios for analysis and discussion of specific ethical issues.
The monograph is a good example of an endeavour to address equity and health literacy in Stavropol, linking theory and evidence with situation analyses and action plans.
Written by the President and CEO of the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) and a leading health care journalist, this groundbreaking book examines how leading organizations in the United States are pursuing the Triple Aim—improving the individual experience of care, improving the health of populations, and reducing the per capita cost of care. Even with major steps forward – including the Affordable Care Act and the creation of the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation – the national health care debate is too often poisoned by negativity. A quieter, more thoughtful, and vastly more constructive conversation continues among health care leaders and professionals throughout the country. Innovative solutions are being designed and implemented at the local level, and countless health care organizations are demonstrating breakthrough remedies to some of the toughest and most expensive challenges in health care. Pursuing the Triple Aim shares compelling stories that are emerging in locations ranging from Pittsburgh to Seattle, from Boston to Oakland, focused on topics including improving quality and lowering costs in primary care; setting challenging goals to control chronic disease with notable outcomes; leveraging employer buying power to improve quality, reduce waste, and drive down cost; paying for care under an innovative contract that compensates for quality rather than quantity; and much more. The authors describe these innovations in detail, and show the way toward a health care system for the nation that improves the experience and quality of care while at the same time controlling costs. As the Triple Aim moves from being largely an aspirational framework to something that communities all across the US can implement and learn from, its potential to become a touchstone for the work ahead has never been greater. Pursuing the Triple Aim lays out the vision, the interventions, and promising examples of success.
There are dramatic differences in health between countries and within countries. But this is not a simple matter of rich and poor. A poor man in Glasgow is rich compared to the average Indian, but the Glaswegian's life expectancy is 8 years shorter than the Indian's. The Indian is dying of infectious disease linked to his poverty; the Glaswegian of violent death, suicide, heart disease linked to a rich country's version of disadvantage. In all countries, people at relative social disadvantage suffer health disadvantage, dramatically so. Within countries, the higher the social status of individuals the better is their health. These health inequalities defy usual explanations. Conventional approaches to improving health have emphasised access to technical solutions - improved medical care, sanitation, and control of disease vectors; or behaviours - smoking, drinking - obesity, linked to diabetes, heart disease and cancer. These approaches only go so far. Creating the conditions for people to lead flourishing lives, and thus empowering individuals and communities, is key to reduction of health inequalities. In addition to the scale of material success, your position in the social hierarchy also directly affects your health, the higher you are on the social scale, the longer you will live and the better your health will be. And as people change rank, so their health risk changes. What makes these health inequalities unjust is that evidence from round the world shows we know what to do to make them smaller. This new evidence is compelling. It has the potential to change radically the way we think about health, and indeed society.
Under IFRS, U.S. GAAP, and the SEC rules and regulations, business enterprises must recognise measure and disclose information regarding equity items on the face of the statement of financial position, other specific statements, or in the notes to the financial statements. However, under both IFRS and U.S. GAAP there is no all-inclusive general standard on stockholders’ equity. This book clarifies the process of reporting stockholders’ equity in a manner which can be reconciled under all the relevant standards. “Not only has the author addressed the informational needs of the players in the accounting industry, he has also drawn, based on his vast experience, practical implications of reporting under both standards.” —Noraini Mohd Nasir, Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting
The paper exploits panel data finite mixture (latent class) models to measure consumer equity in healthcare access and utilization. The finite mixture approach accounts for unobservable consumer heterogeneity, while generalized linear models address a retransformation problem of logged dependent variable. Using the data of the Japan Household Panel Survey (2009–2014), we discover that consumers separate into latent classes in the binary choice models for healthcare use and generalized linear models for outpatient/inpatient healthcare expenditure. The results reveal that healthcare access in Japan is pro-poor for the most sick consumers, while utilization of outpatient care is equitable with respect to disposable income.
Income trusts are booming. They have been one of the best-performing classes of investments in one of the worst markets in decades. With over 150 trusts currently trading on the Toronto Stock Exchange at a combined value of over $90 billion, this relatively new vehicle, the income fund, is one of the hottest tickets on the Canadian investment landscape today. Written by two of the industry's top experts and commentators, this is the first book of its kind: a complete guide to the income trust industry in Canada. Includes complete coverage on: what income funds are and how to use them to your advantage; myths and facts about income funds; different types of income trusts; what to look for in an income trust, and how to assess the risks involved; how income trusts, and the investors in them, are taxed; funds of income funds; and much more. Explains what business owners need to know if they are considering converting their businesses into an income trust. Features listings and profiles of over 160 income funds currently available in Canada, including a description of each fund, performance history, and contact information. Designed for anyone interested in knowing how Canadian income funds work, including: investors, business owners, directors, trustees, stockbrokers, financial advisors, lawyers, accountants, investment bankers, and commercial bankers.
Global Best Practice in Private Equity Investing Private Equity in Action takes you on a tour of the private equity investment world through a series of case studies written by INSEAD faculty and taught at the world's leading business schools. The book is an ideal complement to Mastering Private Equity and allows readers to apply core concepts to investment targets and portfolio companies in real-life settings. The 19 cases illustrate the managerial challenges and risk-reward dynamics common to private equity investment. The case studies in this book cover the full spectrum of private equity strategies, including: Carve-outs in the US semiconductor industry (LBO) Venture investing in the Indian wine industry (VC) Investing in SMEs in the Middle East Turnaround situations in both emerging and developed markets Written with leading private equity firms and their advisors and rigorously tested in INSEAD's MBA, EMBA and executive education programmes, each case makes for a compelling read. As one of the world's leading graduate business schools, INSEAD offers a global educational experience. The cases in this volume leverage its international reach, network and connections, particularly in emerging markets. Private Equity in Action is the companion to Mastering Private Equity: Transformation via Venture Capital, Minority Investments & Buyouts, a reference for students, investors, finance professionals and business owners looking to engage with private equity firms. From deal sourcing to exit, LBOs to responsible investing, operational value creation to risk management, Mastering Private Equity systematically covers all facets of the private equity life cycle.
Navigate equity investments and asset valuation with confidence Equity Asset Valuation, Third Edition blends theory and practice to paint an accurate, informative picture of the equity asset world. The most comprehensive resource on the market, this text supplements your studies for the third step in the three-level CFA certification program by integrating both accounting and finance concepts to explore a collection of valuation models and challenge you to determine which models are most appropriate for certain companies and circumstances. Detailed learning outcome statements help you navigate your way through the content, which covers a wide range of topics, including how an analyst approaches the equity valuation process, the basic DDM, the derivation of the required rate of return within the context of Markowitz and Sharpe's modern portfolio theory, and more. Equity investments encompass the buying and holding of shares of stock in the anticipation of collecting income from dividends and capital gains. Determining which shares will be profitable is key, and an array of valuation techniques is applied on today's market to decide which stocks are ripe for investment and which are best left out of your portfolio. Access the most comprehensive equity asset valuation text on the market Leverage detailed learning outcome statements that focus your attention on key concepts, and guide you in applying the material accurately and effectively Explore a wide range of essential topics, such as the free cash flow approach, valuation using Graham and Dodd type concepts of earning power, associated market multiples, and residual income models Improve your study efforts by leveraging the text during your CFA certification program prep Equity Asset Valuation, Third Edition is a comprehensive, updated text that guides you through the information you need to know to fully understand the general analysis of equity investments.
A comprehensive look at the private equity arena With private equity differing from other asset classes, it requires a whole new approach for those trained in more traditional investments such as stocks and bonds. But with the right guidance, you can gain a firm understanding of everything private equity has to offer. This reliable resource provides a comprehensive view of private equity by describing the current state of research and best practices in this arena. Issues addressed include the structure of private equity funds and fundraising, the financial and real returns of private equity, and the structure of private equity investments with investees, to name a few. Discusses the role of private equity in today's financial environment Provides international perspectives on private equity Details the regulation of private equity markets Filled with in-depth insights and expert advice, this book will provide you with a better understanding of private equity structures and put you in a better position to measure and analyze their performance.
Your complete guide to equity assets valuation Equity Asset Valuation Workbook, Third Edition was designed as a companion to Equity Asset Valuation, Third Edition, the most comprehensive text on this subject available on the market. This workbook provides key study tools, such as learning outcomes, chapter summaries, practice problems, and detailed solutions, that guide you in your preparation for the third step in the CFA certification program. These features reinforce essential theories and their practical application, and assist you in understanding the core concepts behind these theories, as well as when and how to implement them. Integrating both accounting and finance concepts, the workbook and its companion text offer a collection of valuation models—and challenge you to determine which models are most appropriate for given companies and circumstances. When you make an equity investment, you purchase and hold a share of stock. Through the payment of dividends and capital gains, this investment can result in income that can boost the performance of your portfolio—but determining which investments are going to be profitable and which are best passed over is key to building a successful equity investment strategy. Access targeted features, such as practice problems, chapter summaries, and learning outcomes, that reiterate your newfound knowledge Prepare for the third step in your CFA certification program with confidence Reinforce the ideas presented by the workbook's companion text, sold separately Expand your understanding of equity assets through versatile material that blends theory and practice to provide you with a realistic understanding of the field Equity Asset Valuation Workbook, Third Edition complements the revised Equity Asset Valuation, Third Edition, and guides your study efforts for the third step in the CFA certification program.