This article raises the problem of equity in the health system in Switzerland. Three dimensions of the concept of equity are taken into consideration: the inequality in the financing of the health system, the inequality in the distribution of the state of good health, and, finally, the iniquity in the access to health care. Some methodological developments are presented as well as the results. In conclusion we observe that the state of good health does not depend strongly on income but that it exists some iniquity in the access to health services from specialists and that the income inequality is increasing due to the financing of the health system.
This study addresses the question how income affects health care utilization by the population aged 50 and over in the United States and a number of European countries with varying health care systems. The probabilities that individuals receive several medical services (visits to general practitioner, specialist, dentist, inpatient, or outpatient services) are analyzed separately using probit models. In addition to controls for income and demographic characteristics, controls for health status (both subjective and objective measures of health) are used. We analyze how the relationship between income and health care utilization varies across countries and relate these cross country differences to characteristics of the health care system, i. e., per capita total and public expenditure on health care, gate-keeping for specialist care, and copayments.
The Handbook of Global Health Policy provides a definitive source of the key areas in the field. It examines the ethical and practical dimensions of new and current policy models and their effect on the future development of global health and policy. Maps out key debates and policy structures involved in all areas of global health policy Isolates and examines new policy initiatives in global health policy Provides an examination of these initiatives that captures both the ethical/critical as well as practical/empirical dimensions involved with global health policy, global health policy formation and its implications Confronts the theoretical and practical questions of ‘who gets what and why’ and ‘how, when and where?’ Captures the views of a wide array of scholars and practitioners, including from low- and middle-income countries, to ensure an inclusive view of current policy debates
Learn valuable lessons from the newly successful private equity players in China and explore the challenges and opportunities offered in Chinese markets The first book to deal with private equity finance in China, Private Equity in China: Challenges and Opportunities provides much-needed guidance on an investment concept that has so far proved elusive in Asia. Focusing on the opportunities that the Chinese finance market offers to private equity firms, the book shows how these firms can strategically position themselves in order to maximize success in this new marketplace. Private Equity in China includes in-depth case studies illustrating both successful and failed ventures by private equity firms operating in China, outlining the challenges faced by private equity firms in setting up new funds. It contains a collection of valuable experience and insights about acquiring companies and turning them around essential for any firm currently operating in, or considering entering, the Chinese market. Discusses the challenges faced by private equity firms in China including setting up the initial fund, fund raising, deal sourcing, deal execution, and monitoring and exit strategies Provides key insights drawn from keen observations and knowledge of the more mature private equity market in Western countries, analyzing the way forward for the Chinese private equity industry Discusses the role of renminbi-denominated funds in the development of the private equity industry in China Breaking new ground in exploring and explaining the private equity market in China, the book offers incredible new insight into how equity companies can thrive in the Chinese marketplace.
Introduction to Global Health Promotion addresses a breadth and depth of public health topics that students and emerging professionals in the field must understand as the world's burden of disease changes with non-communicable diseases on the rise in low- and middle-income countries as their middle class populations grow. Now more than ever, we need to provide health advocacy and intervention to prevent, predict, and address emerging global health issues. This new text from the Society for Public Health Education (SOPHE) prepares readers with thorough and thoughtful chapters on global health promotion theories, best practices, and perspectives on the future of the field, from the individual to the global level. The world's biggest health care challenges—including HIV, malaria, heart disease, smoking, and violence, among others—are explored in detail in Introduction to Global Health Promotion. The state of the science, including the latest empirical data, is distilled into 19 chapters that update readers on the complex issues surrounding a variety of illnesses and conditions, and disease epidemics and individual, social, institutional, and governmental barriers to preventing them. Expert authors bring to the fore human rights issues, new uses of technology, and practical application of theory. These perspectives, along with the book's multidisciplinary approach, serve to create a well-rounded understanding of global health today. Learn more from the Editors of Introduction to Global Health Promotion here.
This comprehensive textbook analyzes the ethical issues of health and health care in global perspective. Ideal for students of public health, medicine, nursing and allied health professions, public policy, and ethics, the book helps students in all these areas to develop important competencies in their chosen fields. Applying a comparative, or multicultural, approach, the book compares different perspectives on ethical issues in various countries and cultures, such as informed consent, withholding or withdrawing treatment, physician-assisted suicide, reproductive health issues, research with human subjects, the right to health care, rationing of limited resources, and health system reform. Applying a transnational, or cross-border, approach, the book analyzes ethical issues that arise from the movement of patients and health professionals across national borders, such as medical tourism and transplant tourism, ethical obligations to provide care for undocumented aliens, and the “brain drain” of health professionals from developing countries. Comprehensive in scope, the book includes selected readings which provide diverse perspectives of people from different countries and cultures in their own words. Each chapter contains an introductory section centered on a specific topic and explores the different ways in which the topic is viewed around the globe. Ethics in Health Services and Policy is designed to promote student participation and offers methods of activity-based learning, including factual scenarios for analysis and discussion of specific ethical issues.
Across the world, the housing crisis is escalating. Mass migration to cities has led to rapid urbanisation on an unprecedented scale, while the withdrawal of public funding from social housing provision in Western countries, and widening income inequality, have further compounded the situation. In prosperous US and European cities, middle- and low-income residents are being pushed out of housing markets increasingly dominated by luxury investors. The average London tenant, for example, now pays an unaffordable 49 per cent of his or her pre-tax income in rent. Parts of the developing world and areas of forced migration are experiencing insufficient affordable housing stock coupled with rapidly shifting ways of life. In response to this context, forward-thinking architects are taking the lead with a collaborative approach. By partnering with allied fields, working with residents, developing new forms of housing, and leveraging new funding systems and policies, they are providing strategic leadership for what many consider to be our cities’ most pressing crisis. Amidst growing economic and health disparities, this issue of AD asks how housing projects, and the design processes behind them, might be interventions towards greater social equity, and how collaborative work in housing might reposition the architectural profession at large. Contributors include: Cynthia Barton, Deborah Gans, and Rosamund Palmer; Neeraj Bhatia and Antje Steinmuller; Dana Cuff; Fatou Dieye; Robert Fishman; Na Fu; Paul Karakusevic; Kaja Kühl and Julie Behrens; Matthew Gordon Lasner; Meir Lobaton Corona; Marc Norman; Julia Park; Brian Phillips and Deb Katz; Pollyanna Rhee; Emily Schmidt and Rosalie Genevro Featured architects: Architects for Social Housing, Shigeru Ban Architects, Tatiana Bilbao ESTUDIO, cityLAB, Frédéric Druot Architecture, ERA Architects, GANS studio, Garrison Architects, HOWOGE, Interface Studio Architects, Karakusevic Carson Architects, Lacaton & Vassal, Light Earth Designs, NHDM, PYATOK architecture + urban design, Urbanus, and Urban Works Agency
Essential Clinical Global Health is a brand-new, pioneering, and evidence-based textbook that provides a clinical overview of the increasingly prominent specialty of global health. Originally developed from a course at Harvard Medical School, and now with contributions from nearly 100 world-renowned global health experts from across the globe, this textbook presents vital information required of students, trainees, and clinicians during their international experiences and training. Essential Clinical Global Health introduces readers to the up-to-date knowledge, skills, and approaches needed for productive and rewarding global health experiences. It provides essential clinical information on the diagnosis, management, and prevention of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries. The textbook also includes practical guidance on topics such as health systems, population-based approaches, cultural awareness and sensitivity, travel preparedness and safety, and career development in global health. With key learning objectives in each chapter, practical clinical advice, setting-appropriate guidelines, personal field experiences from student and clinician contributors, Essential Clinical Global Health is the first global health textbook with a clinical focus for healthcare students, trainees, and providers. A companion website at www.wileyessential.com/globalhealth features self-assessment questions and videos.
The monograph is a good example of an endeavour to address equity and health literacy in Stavropol, linking theory and evidence with situation analyses and action plans.
In order to work toward eradicating extreme poverty and hunger, the United Nations Millennium Development Goals significantly include universal primary education, gender equality, and empowering women. Effective early literacy instruction plays a critical role in achieving these goals. From around the globe, this issue presents evidence-based, culturally sensitive and cost-effective practices in reading instruction and intervention in the early grades. Not only will this issue heighten awareness of the challenges faced but it will provide valuable information to help guide and improve diverse global education programs and research, especially in developing regions and for children living in poverty or disadvantage in all nations. Presenting several experiences from small- and large-scale reading improvement programs, it: Focuses on low- and middle-income countries, Describes challenges in implementing, studying, and scaling them up, Informs expectations on how quickly and easily reading performance can change, and Provides results and evidence of effectiveness. This is the 155th volume in this Jossey-Bass series New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development. Its mission is to provide scientific and scholarly presentations on cutting edge issues and concepts in this subject area. Each volume focuses on a specific new direction or research topic and is edited by experts from that field.
Under IFRS, U.S. GAAP, and the SEC rules and regulations, business enterprises must recognise measure and disclose information regarding equity items on the face of the statement of financial position, other specific statements, or in the notes to the financial statements. However, under both IFRS and U.S. GAAP there is no all-inclusive general standard on stockholders’ equity. This book clarifies the process of reporting stockholders’ equity in a manner which can be reconciled under all the relevant standards. “Not only has the author addressed the informational needs of the players in the accounting industry, he has also drawn, based on his vast experience, practical implications of reporting under both standards.” —Noraini Mohd Nasir, Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting
The paper exploits panel data finite mixture (latent class) models to measure consumer equity in healthcare access and utilization. The finite mixture approach accounts for unobservable consumer heterogeneity, while generalized linear models address a retransformation problem of logged dependent variable. Using the data of the Japan Household Panel Survey (2009–2014), we discover that consumers separate into latent classes in the binary choice models for healthcare use and generalized linear models for outpatient/inpatient healthcare expenditure. The results reveal that healthcare access in Japan is pro-poor for the most sick consumers, while utilization of outpatient care is equitable with respect to disposable income.
Written by the President and CEO of the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) and a leading health care journalist, this groundbreaking book examines how leading organizations in the United States are pursuing the Triple Aim—improving the individual experience of care, improving the health of populations, and reducing the per capita cost of care. Even with major steps forward – including the Affordable Care Act and the creation of the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation – the national health care debate is too often poisoned by negativity. A quieter, more thoughtful, and vastly more constructive conversation continues among health care leaders and professionals throughout the country. Innovative solutions are being designed and implemented at the local level, and countless health care organizations are demonstrating breakthrough remedies to some of the toughest and most expensive challenges in health care. Pursuing the Triple Aim shares compelling stories that are emerging in locations ranging from Pittsburgh to Seattle, from Boston to Oakland, focused on topics including improving quality and lowering costs in primary care; setting challenging goals to control chronic disease with notable outcomes; leveraging employer buying power to improve quality, reduce waste, and drive down cost; paying for care under an innovative contract that compensates for quality rather than quantity; and much more. The authors describe these innovations in detail, and show the way toward a health care system for the nation that improves the experience and quality of care while at the same time controlling costs. As the Triple Aim moves from being largely an aspirational framework to something that communities all across the US can implement and learn from, its potential to become a touchstone for the work ahead has never been greater. Pursuing the Triple Aim lays out the vision, the interventions, and promising examples of success.
What types of mental health care are right for the 21st century—in all countries, around the world? What is the best balance of primary care and specialist mental health care for people with mental illness? What is the best evidence for effective treatments and services? Which methods are most suitable for answering these questions? These are the tough issues addressed by this book. Leading experts from across the world bring their experience to bear in a series of chapters that set out the very best evidence in this field. They present clear accounts of what is known, extensively referenced, with critical appraisals of the strength of the evidence and the robustness of the conclusions that can be drawn. This book was inspired by the work of Michele Tansella on the development of community care globally. It comprises four sections, identifying the challenges associated with providing mental health services in high-, middle- and low-income countries, then describing ways to meet these challenges. A section on new research methods to produce practical evidence is a novel aspect of the book. The final section addresses how best to deliver new forms of care, bearing in mind the human resources available. The chapters extensively cite specific studies to enhance the practical relevance. Much of the cited research involves service users so their voice is heard throughout the text. Mental health is rapidly becoming recognised as one of the leading global health challenges. This book adds to our knowledge of the challenge and the solutions and stands to make a significant contribution to global mental health.