In the present book, an attempt has been made to remove heavy metals like copper and nickel from textile waste water in industries and how this waste water can be reused. Ion exchange and batch adsorption method is the solution of heavy metals removal from waste water and can often use and easy to investigate the result in laboratory and industries. Electroplating waste water from different electroplating industries of Ahmadabad region(India) have been selected. The modified bioadsorbent have been selected for the removal of metals. Different Parameters has been investigated intensively.Standard parameters can be developed for column chromatography to remove some heavy metals from industrial waste water and can make filter plantation for metals removal from waste effluent. Thus it may be possible to reuse for industrial purpose or other domestic uses. If we can remove them really, it will major help for survival of green and clean earth. It also concluded that this type of plants can be established for modification of some new bioadsorbent for the better recovery of heavy metals from industrial effluent to save environment and green globe.
Heavy metal contamination of wastewaters is a growing concern now a days. Conventional biological treatment of industrial discharges cannot be a success unless these metals of concern are removed prior to secondary treatment. Hence there is a dire need to devise a treatment which not only is efficient but also cost effective. Biosorption proved to be a promising alternative among many treatment technologies for removing heavy metals from wastewater. Agricultural residues being waste of farms and agricultural land can be potential adsorbents for removing these metals of concern. This book aimed the investigation of copper and lead removal using agricultural residues like rice husk and wheat straw.
This book focuses on the magnetic field, recovery of precious metal and the design of an integrated units and the scale up. This book consists of seven chapters concerning the recovery of copper, treating of industrial waste water which consider a major environmental problem for many industries and magnetic Field. Chapter one includes general introduction about environmental pollution . While chapter two explains the waste water, heavy metals and its effect onto the environment, Techniques of removal of heavy metals from waste water,kinetic and mechanism of cementation process. Chapter three discuss in detail the magnetic field and its application. whilst chapter four list the literatures review. Chapter five deals with the experimental work. Chapter six discuss the experimental results and elucidate how these results used to make scale up and design for the integrated system. Finally chapter seven summarize this work.
Sewage sludge could be used as organic fertilizer and source for nutrients in soil. Sludge always contain toxic substances especially heavy metals. When applied to land heavy metals can accumulate in the soil and produce harmful effects in animal and vegetation. A safe use of sewage sludge as soil conditioner requires sewage sludge with low heavy metal content. The removal of the heavy metals from sludge reduces prospective health risk during its application to land and accumulation in the food chain as well as persistence in nature. Microbial and chemical leaching using Thiobacillus thiooxidans and H2SO4 was investigated to solubilize heavy metals (HMs) from domestic sludge at different concentrations. Result obtained showed that 100% Cr was solubilized at 50 ml sludge concentration when the bioleached sludge was digested with 50% (v/v) H2SO4, while 90% Cr was also solubilized at same sludge concentration when the bioleached sludge wasn’t digested with H2SO4.The scientific community would benefit from this project since it has developed new methods for the removal and recovery of heavy metals from dilute solutions and their reduction to very low concentrations in sewage sludge.
Heavy metals represent an important source of environmental pollution. Oil and petrochemical industries produce considerable amounts of heavy metals that finds its way to water sources such as rivers, lakes, sea, and ground water in addition to soil . Biological treatment units are unable to remove these metals since they are non-biodegradable. Considerable attention had been given for the treatment of heavy metals in recent years. North oil refineries company in Baiji suffer from the presence of many heavy metals in the discharged wastewater from biological treatment unit. The concentration of many of these heavy metals concentrations exceed the allowable concentrations according to the Iraqi limits. The present work is a trial to treat Copper, Manganeze, and Zinc from a synthetic wastewater using activated carbon. The study proved that these metals can be removed completely. However the breakthrough and exhaustion times for Zinc are lower than that of Copper and Manganese. The study proved also that adsorption capacity is not a pure property of activated carbon, but it depends on the operating conditions and the type of adsorbent and adsorbate and their characteristics.
Water pollution is topic of immense and common concern throughout the world. This book presents the results and data from research and adsorption experiments carried out on the removal of nickel and chromium (as well as other metals) from aqueous solutions using modified silica sand.
Dairy farms have emerged around big towns and the water supply is exposed to contaminants from industrial wastes, city drainage and water sewerage. Data were collected from 25 farms. Water and milk samples were analyzed for mineral contents. Mean Cd, Cr and Pb were 0.08, 0.95 and 0.67 (mg l-1) respectively. Zn (r=0.313, P< 0.001) concentration in milk increased with increasing intake of drinking water. Heavy metals Cr, Pb and Cd in milk increased with increasing intake of drinking water. The daily intake of toxic heavy metals Cd, Cr and Pb through milk were 1952.38%, 3896% and 1865.19% above the maximum daily intake of heavy metals from all sources. It is concluded that Mg, Zn and Fe were below the desirable limits while the toxic heavy metals (Cd, Cr and Pb) were above the maximum allowable intake in drinking water. The heavy metals intake through milk alone was much more than the total daily intake of these heavy metals from all sources. Free access to drinking water effected milk yield, body condition and fertility favorably. The higher intake of lead was associated with depressed milk and enhanced level of this element in milk.
The objective of this study is analyzing the use of natural absorbents as an economical adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from effluents. The experiments were conducted in batch system and the effect of pH, the amount of adsorbent, contact time and the initial concentration of heavy metals were examined. The most common isotherms and kinetics of adsorption were applied to analyze heavy metals adsorption and the reaction rate; also the morphological characteristics of natural absorbents were determined before and after the process by using scanning electron microscope (SEM).
Despite the lack of successful treatments for people with severe mental disorders, a large number of patients nevertheless recover. What is known today about recovery from severe mental disorders? To what can the improvement in these patients’ condition be attributed? And how do these factors impact on the recovery process? The aims of the book are twofold: 1. to present what is known today about recovery from severe mental disorders. 2. to present the findings of a study on recovery from severe mental disorders from the perspective of those who have recovered, with respect to the course of the recovery process, ?which factors according to the interview subjects influenced their recovery and?the user’s descriptions of how these factors have influenced their recovery.
Nickel and cobalt are strategically important metals. At present the higher grade nickel bearing ores and minerals are not adequately available for mineral industries for metal recovery. Hence the lower grade complex and oxidic nickel ores are the only available resource for extraction of nickel and cobalt. However recovery of metal values from lean grade complex ores through conventional metallurgical processes is becoming a challenge for mineral industries in the techno-economical point of view. Bioprocessing of complex and lean grade mineral is a new possibility to recover metal values at ambient conditions.
Phenol is one of the most widely used organic compounds for the manufacture of synthetic compounds including pesticides and resins. Phenol enters the soil and water through different pathways from plastic manufacturing, oil purification, coke manufacturing and pharmaceutical effluents. The presence of phenol in water when consumed by human beings results in symptoms such as gastrointestinal illness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain. Scope of this study is to degrade phenol from wastewaters in an eco friendly manner using various micro-organisms, so as to reduce the adverse effects of phenol on environment. Biodegradation of phenol was carried out in Rotating Biological Contactor. Promising results were obtained during this study which indicates that this system may be adopted by industries for the biodegradation of phenol from wastewaters.
Women's personal narratives about long-term recovery from alcohol and drug addiction are scarce, leaving much unknown about the nature of the recovery process over the life course. Nine women participated in this study. Each woman was in long-term recovery, ranging from five to 28 years of sustained abstinence from alcohol and other drugs. A tri-layered narrative analysis was utilized to examine their personal stories, looking specifically at story structure, transitions and trajectories over the life course, and the expression of voice. Findings revealed how language is highly contextualized in order to structure personal stories, including the use of images and vignettes to translate and illustrate emotionally-charged experiences. The trajectories into addiction and recovery are detailed and a road map for recovery is provided. Definitions for recovery and long-term recovery are included to emphasize the perspective of the women in this study. Implications for social work research in addiction include the exploration of long-term recovery and its evolution over the life course, with special attention paid to gender, culture, and relationships.
Over the last few years, the use of Glycerin has increased manifold times. Glycerin has many extensive uses, in different industries, starting from food and pharmaceuticals to rocket engineering. Very little academic literature exists on how to treat and recover Glycerin, produced as Glycerol in saponification reactions. Further there is almost no literature available for the recovery of Glycerin produced from the saponification of oils. This book focuses on the experiments and results for the production of soap from oils, estimation of glycerol, recovery of glycerin from a synthetic glycerol and water solution and study of its behavior. It also covers in detail the study of the behavior of glycerol with time at a temperature of 90 0C – 100 0C. The study is done using edible oil (karanja oil) and a non-edible oil (rice-bran oil). The process of recovery f glycerol is standardized. This work is aimed for utilization by researchers, industrialists’ and traditional business’. Apart from this it will be especially relevant and usable by the students of Food sciences, Bio sciences, Pharmacy, Chemistry and Chemical engineering for carrying out research in the recovery of Glycerol.
The accumulation of heavy metals in soils especially in mining environments is of increasing concern to researchers in the Agricultural industry. Consumption of vegetables and fruits containing heavy metals is one of the main ways in which these elements enter the human body. The present study investigated the concentration of heavy metals: Cu, Zn, Cr, As and Pb in soil as well as fruit samples collected from the rehabilitated sites in the Sierra Rutile environs to evaluate the possible health risks to human body through food chain transfer. The sampled plants showed high translocation factor values (TF>1) implying that they could be labelled as accumulators of pollution. It can be concluded that the crops/plants grown in the rehabilitated lands in the Sierra Rutile environs absorb significant levels of some heavy metals from the polluted soil