Islam and the Secular State – Negotiating the Future of Shari`a (OISC)
This thesis explores the history of minority rights and enforcement mechanisms, minority governance in five western democracies (Germany, Switzerland, Belgium, United Kingdom, and Spain) and the case of Western Thrace Muslim Turkish minority of Greece. The unit of analysis is historical minorities. The study therefore seeks to explore the nature and applicability of these rights and their role in the protection of minorities. Accordingly, the League of Nations, the United Nations, the European Institutions of Council of Europe, Organization and Security in Europe, the European Union and their related legislation concerning minorities have been scrutinized. Implementation in five European democracies has been mentioned in order to offer a preliminary comparative perspective. The bulk of the study is about the Muslim Turkish minority of Greece; elaborated within a historical, legal and political perspective; within the framework of kin-state and host-state relations, the social structure of the minority itself and their interactions with the majority whose interactions have occasionally been shaped by the legacy of history and of bilateral relations between Turkey and Greece.
This Study has analysed the present literacy and educational status of Muslim Girls in India, the social, cultural and educational factors and forces hindering their educational participation against the backdrop of existing policies, programmes and schemes to promote education of girls in general and those belonging to educationally backward minorities and other socially and economically disadvantaged sections of our society. Main objective of this book to exploring future directions and strategies for integrating and galvanizing girls of all walks of life for playing their role in building and sustaining the 21st Century knowledge based Society, and more importantly, building an equitable social order and a society that will women not only formal equality but also a life of dignity. This book will be helpful for researchers, educationists, teachers, parents and ministers to set the policies for girls of Muslim community.
Twentieth-century Europe saw many international schemes for the forced resettlement of national minorities, and Making Minorities History draws a comprehensive and wide-ranging historical narrative of this population transfer, examining the thinking that informed the solution for the so-called 'minorities problem'.
This comparative ethnography explores Islamic revival movements in France and India, home to the largest numbers of Muslim minorities in Western Europe and Asia. Parvez provides an in-depth view into how Muslims in two cities struggle to improve their lives as denigrated minorities, amid national crises of secular democracy.
How do Muslim religious leaders in the West theologically and ideologically fit Islamic teachings into a liberal and democratic political system? This study investigates this question through a case study on 14 leaders in the largest mosques of Norway. They all regard the Norwegian political system as a good system, and view the current situation in most of the Muslim world as bad. Nevertheless they relate to the Norwegian political system in different ways. Some are universalists and claim that a Norwegian-like political system would be good in Muslim countries as well. Others make a conceptual distinction between Muslim and non-Muslim countries, and claim that different political systems are suitable for Muslim and non-Muslim land: liberal democracy in the West, and non-liberal Islamic democracy in Muslim countries.
After 7/7, there was a concern that some individuals could exploit the religious background of the bombers as an excuse for racist attacks and abuses against members of Muslim communities in British. The report confirms that in the immediate period after the attacks there was a temporary and disturbing increase in suspicion, discrimination, criticism and faith hate crimes across the UK. Understandably, this made British Muslims feel vulnerable and fear for their safety. The strong stand taken by political and Muslim community leaders both in condemning the attacks and defending the legitimate rights of Muslims saw a swift reduction in such incidents. As a result of the strong stand by Muslim political, Islamic scholar and community leaders there was a largely positive response from the media across the UK. In addition, Muslim community leaders reacted immediately and unequivocally by condemning the bombers. These factors together were decisive in countering incidents and prejudice against minorities, and preventing a trend of incidents and attacks from taking shape. The real test will be whether this initial encouraging response translates into effective long-term action that addre
Since September 11, 2001 Muslim Americans have been under intense scrutiny most often for reasons related to national security. This has left other aspects of the Muslim American political experience unexamined. This book explores the development of a Muslim American Environmental Ethic and its implications for the social and political life for contemporary Muslims in the United States. Using semi structured interviews, lectures from prominent Muslim activists, and visits to a Muslim community center, it focuses on the contemporary Muslim understanding of environmentalism, their practices of environmentalism, and what this means for their political and social status here in the United States. This work contributes to research on an unique aspect of Muslim American politics and social behavior and the intersection of religious beliefs and the environmental movement.
The movement away from secularist practices and toward political Islam is a prominent trend across Muslim polities. Yet this shift remains under-theorized. Why do modern Muslim polities adopt policies that explicitly cater to religious sensibilities? How are these encoded in law and with what effects? Sadia Saeed addresses these questions through examining shifts in Pakistan's official state policies toward the rights of religious minorities, in particular the controversial Ahmadiyya community. Looking closely at the 'Ahmadi question', Saeed develops a framework for conceptualizing and explaining modern desecularization processes that emphasizes the critical role of nation-state formation, political majoritarianism, and struggles between 'secularist' and 'religious' ideologues in evolving political and legal fields. The book demonstrates that desecularization entails instituting new understandings of religion through processes and justifications that are quintessentially modern.
The Muslim community of India constitues the largest minority group anywhere in the world. They are the third largest Muslim population of the world after Indonesian and Pakistani Muslims. The history of sixty-one years of independent India shows that Muslims are being deprived of employment and education opportunities, basic health facilities and political representation. They are amongst the most deprived sections of the society. The liberalization and privatization process of 1991 allowed the entrance of globalization into the Indian society. The new era of economic, and in turn social development, raised the expectations of equal opportunities to development and progress for all the sections of society, especially for minorities. This study is an attempt to analyze whether the religious minorities, especially Muslim minority of India, are also among the beneficiaries of globalization or they still are deprived and among have-not's. In this regard different investigation reports has been consulted especially Sachhar Commission report on the Soio-Poiltical and Economic status of Minorities in India.
Freedom of expression is not only one of the basic elements of democracy but a precondition to the process itself. Under the name of freedom of expression, a Danish newspaper in 2005 publishes 12 caricatures depicting the Prophet Muhammad. These cartoons enrage the Muslim World, who considers cartoons as offending and racist. Denmark and some other European countries stand up to protect their freedom of expression, while Muslims raise up to defend themselves against the new wave of prejudice and xenophobia. European politicians find themselves divided into two; the left wing sees the publication as outrageous, endangering the marginalized minorities, while the right wing sees minorities as threatening to the liberal democracy. This book attempts to look at the political, social and economic consequences of Danish cartoons. Was the cartoon publication a mistake? Should freedom of expression be absolute or it should be used responsibly, especially when it targets vulnerable minorities? To Muslims drawing the Prophet is considered a sin and a forbidden act. To the West anybody can be a target of criticism and even mockery. The debate is ongoing.