Sustainability is considered as one of the most important objective of urban planning. However, due to inappropriate planning, weak institutions, lack of resources and poor implementation of policies most of the big cities in the developing nations have become less sustainable: environmentally, economically and socially than they were in the past. The challenge of informal settlements is widely recognized in international and national programs on sustainable development. Informal settlements are an urban phenomenon. They are often characterized as ‘illegal’ residential formation lacking basic infrastructure, security of tenure, adequate housing, etc. Poverty and social exclusion are key drivers behind the formation of illegal settlements. Thus, this research work aims in discussing the economic, social and environmental aspects of slums and recommending strategies to upgrade slum areas for making Kathmandu valley environmentally sustainable.
Poor health among the urban poor has greatly been associated with their living environment that lacks proper sanitation, adequate and clean water and poor housing. Eldoret town is rated among the fastest growing town in East and Central Africa with more than 50% of its residents living in slum areas. This book addresses types of housing prevalent in selected slum areas of Eldoret, implications of the physical and human factors to health, and the ability and willingness of residents to conserve the environment as a resource. The author observes that most of the slum dwellers are fairly educated people who temporarily stay in the slums as they seek improved income opportunities elsewhere. She also points out that the physical environment in the slums lacks municipal services such as water, sanitation and housing. The author recommends a participatory approach, that involves the municipal council and slum residents, in the management of slum areas so as to improve the living standards of the slum dwellers. This book is highly recommended for urban planners, researchers, natural resources managers, and NGOs involved in urban development.
In our contemporary world, the urban areas are categorized as slum and non-slum areas mainly on the basis of structural quality of housing and sanitation. The living environment in the slum areas are unhealthy. Similarly, the sanitation facilities are also not good as compared to non-slum areas. This book explores the living condition in slum a and non-slum areas and attempts a comparative analysis of both areas of India. It not only provides a comparative picture of living environments of slum and non-slum area but, also compares distinct morbidity in both areas of India. It is unique in the sense that no study of such type has been conducted so far taking all major cities of India. The study finds that prevalence of different diseases among women and children is high in comparatively small cities. In addition to that the study shows that the sanitation environment and household environment is significant contributor for different diseases. This book is useful for people studying Demography and Public Health. Alternatively, the book is also handy for those studying Geography and Urbanization, particularly, Urban Planners.
According to UN-Habitat, at the start of the millenium, Turkey had a slum population consisting in 17.9% of the total urban population. Followed by the policies, the country reduced this proportion of slum households to 12.4% in 2010. Evolving from these facts, this book seeks the reflection on built environment whilst pointing to the squatters as the settlements of low-income communities in Turkey. Revealing the existing social, environmental and design issues of those settlements, the book pieces together the potential role of sustainable housing strategies within the frame of social justice and environmental development. The author carefully documents the issues that came along with the slum upgrading projects in Turkey. Through a specific case located in Istanbul; author furthermore addresses social and design strategies on the findings for better and sustainable outcomes to meet the needs of environmental and social imperatives in slum communities.
What is more damaging for our environment: being poor or being rich? Are the people who live in the worst areas of our cities better or worse off than those who live in rural areas? Globally, how many of the city-people are actually slum dwellers? Can they help protect the environment? Is it possible to improve their lives? Scavenging refers to rummaging through trash in search of specific waste for its reuse. Scavenging is a worldwide and ancient phenomenon and their daily and intimate contact with our waste, makes them undesirable, repressed and prosecuted; most live in slums. However, several researchers have shown that scavenging is vital for the recycling of materials in most of the developing world, saving energy, raw materials and a horde of associated environmental impacts. This work analyzes the phenomena of urban poverty, slums, slum livelihood and sustainability. The researcher traveled to Lima, Peru to learn the life of scavengers and meet those who try to improve it... and those who don''t. In the end a single question: what are some of the key social conditions that enable the sustainable improvement of livelihoods in slums? Some answers inside...
This book explores the role of citizen journalism in the improvement of slums taking the Voice of Kibera (VOK), Kenya as a case study. Specifically, the book assesses the nature of citizen journalism, its perceived contribution and the challenges/sustainability in the practice. The book uses both qualitative and quantitative methodologies with empirical evidences and robust literature review. It concludes with important findings and recommendations on the potentials of citizen journalism.
Children are catalysts for future development of the nation. Crime and delinquency free environment is essential for human, social and psychological development of slum children. One-third of Dhaka’s twelve million inhabitants live in slums (CUS, NIPORT, and MEASURE Evaluation 2006) and the city is projected to grow by another 7 million people over the next ten years (Baker, 2007). Among them, around one third of the population is children. The slum children are deprived from basic human security such as economic, food, health, environmental, personal, community, and political security. Such insecurity sometimes pushes slum children to various types of crimes and delinquencies. This work has described the types of crimes and delinquencies are done by slum children and theoretically explained the causes of their involvement to crimes and delinquencies. The book is useful for the academicians and researchers to know about Bangladeshi slum, slum children, crimes and delinquencies of slum children etc. It is also needed for the stakeholders those who want to reduce urban crimes, save the children from crimes and develop socioeconomic condition of slum children.
This book provides insights into the development of slum tourism in Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya. It explores the attitudes elicited by socio-economic impacts and ethical acceptability of the tours. Tourists are forsaking national parks, beaches and museums for crowded and filthy slums. While some people see it as exploitation of the worst kind where the poverty situation of the local residents is displayed as the main tourist attraction; others see it as generating valuable insight into how slum dwellers live. Mr. Magio observes that the manner in which these tours are organized is so restrictive that it limits the interactions between the residents and the slum tourists. In most cases, residents are dissatisfied with the level of benefits and admit that money from slum tourism goes to non-residents such as tour operators. The author opines that sustainability of slum tourism can only be achieved when the level of benefits and the interaction between the slum residents and the slum tourists is enhanced. He recommends the recognition of the slum tours by government authorities and the establishment of structures to coordinate the planning and execution of slum tourism programs.
Constructing and improving urban residential areas is an eternal critical subject in the process of the whole urban development which is connected with a series of challenges and problems. During the past decades, urban residential development has speed up extremely with massive population mobility in cities. The purpose of this study is to present an integrated approach for sustainability assessment of urban residential development, considering sustainability indicators, housing equilibrium and building visualization. The main contribution of this study is the GISSD application, by integrating Geographical Information System (GIS), System Dynamics (SD) and 3D visualization, which is designed for sustainability assessment of urban residential development, linking residential housing prediction and sustainability indicators in four main sectors: housing, society, economics and environment.
The study critically reviews literature on postmodernity and its implication on marketing, business-to-business marketing approaches and implications of postmodernity on it, sustainability and processes of entering market. The study is limited to engineering and manufacturing industry in South Wales region. The data reveals the continuum of value co-creation opportunities based upon the nature of customer. The most significant finding is the reflection of effectual process in B2B environment. In addition, the findings also exhibit the notions of postmodernity in B2B that reinforces literature.
This study is focused on NGOs that are operating in the livelihood’s category and specific focus is on the Traditional Irrigation and Environmental Development Organization (TIP) in Tanzania. This study was set out to investigate the effect of donor driven financial policies on sustainability of TIP and projects implemented by TIP. The assessed independent variables related to internal control, procurement, governance structures, management, policy environment, ICT, accounting procedures and budgeting, reporting and auditing systems have generally fallen into two parts: i) a moderate risk assessment in the relevant area with some capacity enhancement required to improve capability and ii) low to moderately low risk assessment in the relevant area with little to no capacity enhancement required to improve capability. Finally, several recommendations to improve TIP’s performance towards its sustainability are proposed.
In the modern energy-demanding lifestyle there is an overwhelming need for exploring sources of energy which are renewable and eco-friendly. Bioconversion of biowaste streams for energy production is an increasingly promising option. Through the biogas value chain, bioconversion presents a very attractive route to valorise various biowaste and enables communities to meet their energy needs, conserve resources and protect the environment. However there are challenges in sustainable implementation of biogas technology. The book has therefore reviewed the biogas value chain from a critical sustainability perspective. It has also covered a detailed case study of the potential of biogas production from biowaste in Kenya and how it influences environmental sustainability. The evaluation of biowaste energy potential and the development of a simple yet effective methodology to assess its sustainability are some of the key issues that this book has addressed. In addition, the book also incorporates a thought provoking analysis of the potential contribution of biowaste-based biogas energy to environmental sustainability from an integrated industrial and domestic case study perspective.
Small and medium-sized Tourism Enterprises (SMTEs) are important industries in collection of revenue and the economic contribution for development. This thesis examined tourism enterprises on four dimensions of sustainability these are the economic, the environmental, the socio-cultural and the institutional indicators. 28 interviewees were taken in three key sectors; accommodation, service and other supportive sectors of SMTEs in Pokhara, Nepal. The interviewees were owners, managers, and workers. The result revealed that entrepreneurs are happy with the businesses performance and profitability. However, they are interested to reduce negative impact and increasing positive contribution to the environment and society at the destinations. This research will be one of the positive examples on making sustainable tourism enterprises a big success in the destination. Furthermore, how tourism entrepreneurs are to be implemented sustainability indicators on it. The study applied the concept the prism of sustainability. This involved sustainability indicators tourism in four dimensions of it.
Millennium Development Goal targets to halve the proportion of population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation by 2015 and aims to achieve a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers. The large size of slum population has posed several challenges to the policy makers and program planners in the developing countries. Present study attempts to study the characteristics of slum dwellers in all the states/union territories and 35 million plus cities in India. Results reveal that slum dwellers have better sex ratio and work participation rate as compared to the non-slum urban area. Few million plus cities have reported about half of its city population living in slums i.e. Faridabad, Greater Mumbai and Meerut. Present study also attempts to understand the living conditions of slum dwellers in Mumbai. In spite of many slums got notified by the government they are still lacking basic necessities of life. In spite of several government policies there is a need to improve the life of slum dwellers through the community participation.