Sustainability is considered as one of the most important objective of urban planning. However, due to inappropriate planning, weak institutions, lack of resources and poor implementation of policies most of the big cities in the developing nations have become less sustainable: environmentally, economically and socially than they were in the past. The challenge of informal settlements is widely recognized in international and national programs on sustainable development. Informal settlements are an urban phenomenon. They are often characterized as ‘illegal’ residential formation lacking basic infrastructure, security of tenure, adequate housing, etc. Poverty and social exclusion are key drivers behind the formation of illegal settlements. Thus, this research work aims in discussing the economic, social and environmental aspects of slums and recommending strategies to upgrade slum areas for making Kathmandu valley environmentally sustainable.
According to UN-Habitat, at the start of the millenium, Turkey had a slum population consisting in 17.9% of the total urban population. Followed by the policies, the country reduced this proportion of slum households to 12.4% in 2010. Evolving from these facts, this book seeks the reflection on built environment whilst pointing to the squatters as the settlements of low-income communities in Turkey. Revealing the existing social, environmental and design issues of those settlements, the book pieces together the potential role of sustainable housing strategies within the frame of social justice and environmental development. The author carefully documents the issues that came along with the slum upgrading projects in Turkey. Through a specific case located in Istanbul; author furthermore addresses social and design strategies on the findings for better and sustainable outcomes to meet the needs of environmental and social imperatives in slum communities.
This book explores the role of citizen journalism in the improvement of slums taking the Voice of Kibera (VOK), Kenya as a case study. Specifically, the book assesses the nature of citizen journalism, its perceived contribution and the challenges/sustainability in the practice. The book uses both qualitative and quantitative methodologies with empirical evidences and robust literature review. It concludes with important findings and recommendations on the potentials of citizen journalism.
Ethiopia is the second most populated country in the Sub-Saharan Africa, with 85 million of inhabitants. At the same time is one of the least urbanized countries, with only the 17% of the population living in urban areas. In the last decade, however, the capital Addis Ababa has suffered a wave of urbanization without equal but the inadequacy of planning tools is getting in the way of a proper development, leading to the exasperation of social conflicts and to the exacerbation of the slums situation. This book is focused on the relationship between formal planning and informal settlements in the city of Addis Ababa, analyzing the current situation of the urban fabric, its origins and the upgrading projects so far implemented. The aim is to outline a sustainable strategy for the design of new urban scenarios, starting from the upgrading of informal settlements through the protection of the traditional ways of living and social networks of interaction.
Several projects have come up to remedy the plight of informal housing in Kenya, each laudable, but none has so far been successful. In line with the government's mission of providing housing for it's citizens, the Kenya government embarked on this ambitious slum upgrading mission, which used water and sanitation as an entry point to the community. This particular project was used by the KENSUP as the pilot project for purposes of country wide replication. The book outlines the experiences gained from implementing this project together with it's emerging impants;it is useful for both policy makers and scholars who want to gain more insight on the beginnings of K-Watsan
What is more damaging for our environment: being poor or being rich? Are the people who live in the worst areas of our cities better or worse off than those who live in rural areas? Globally, how many of the city-people are actually slum dwellers? Can they help protect the environment? Is it possible to improve their lives? Scavenging refers to rummaging through trash in search of specific waste for its reuse. Scavenging is a worldwide and ancient phenomenon and their daily and intimate contact with our waste, makes them undesirable, repressed and prosecuted; most live in slums. However, several researchers have shown that scavenging is vital for the recycling of materials in most of the developing world, saving energy, raw materials and a horde of associated environmental impacts. This work analyzes the phenomena of urban poverty, slums, slum livelihood and sustainability. The researcher traveled to Lima, Peru to learn the life of scavengers and meet those who try to improve it... and those who don''t. In the end a single question: what are some of the key social conditions that enable the sustainable improvement of livelihoods in slums? Some answers inside...
In our contemporary world, the urban areas are categorized as slum and non-slum areas mainly on the basis of structural quality of housing and sanitation. The living environment in the slum areas are unhealthy. Similarly, the sanitation facilities are also not good as compared to non-slum areas. This book explores the living condition in slum a and non-slum areas and attempts a comparative analysis of both areas of India. It not only provides a comparative picture of living environments of slum and non-slum area but, also compares distinct morbidity in both areas of India. It is unique in the sense that no study of such type has been conducted so far taking all major cities of India. The study finds that prevalence of different diseases among women and children is high in comparatively small cities. In addition to that the study shows that the sanitation environment and household environment is significant contributor for different diseases. This book is useful for people studying Demography and Public Health. Alternatively, the book is also handy for those studying Geography and Urbanization, particularly, Urban Planners.
This Book examines how the Arab investment environment affected by the changes of Arab economic relations in the framework of joint Arab economic work and changes the nature of the stage which through it, it was divided into five parts interconnected with each other, the paper noticed in the first part is to change phases joint Arab economic work, And shrouded from the political and economic events of the Arab, regional and international changes, reflected in the Arab economic agreements emanating from the Arab League, which runs the Arab regional economic system, , and these agreements are a head specified of Arab investment environment.
Poor health among the urban poor has greatly been associated with their living environment that lacks proper sanitation, adequate and clean water and poor housing. Eldoret town is rated among the fastest growing town in East and Central Africa with more than 50% of its residents living in slum areas. This book addresses types of housing prevalent in selected slum areas of Eldoret, implications of the physical and human factors to health, and the ability and willingness of residents to conserve the environment as a resource. The author observes that most of the slum dwellers are fairly educated people who temporarily stay in the slums as they seek improved income opportunities elsewhere. She also points out that the physical environment in the slums lacks municipal services such as water, sanitation and housing. The author recommends a participatory approach, that involves the municipal council and slum residents, in the management of slum areas so as to improve the living standards of the slum dwellers. This book is highly recommended for urban planners, researchers, natural resources managers, and NGOs involved in urban development.
This dissertation examines the actions, decisions, interactions, and operations undertaken by DuPont from 1989 to 2008 that enabled it to transform into a sustainable organization. Specifically, this dissertation examines the role of organizational change in sustainability exhibited by DuPont during its change process. The researcher in this single case study uses novel theoretical lenses in order to gain insight into the role of organizational change in sustainability, including sustainability theory, organizational change theory, and organizational diagnosis theory. From 1990 to 2008, E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company (DuPont) reduced its greenhouse gas emissions by 72% and changed its product composition from 100% chemical based to 70% chemical based (and 30% biological matter based). Two major findings of this research study were determining some of the conditions in which business strategy and sustainability support one another and the criticality of social responsibility.
In this book, variables that determine urban housing and neighbourhood quality, as it relates to the city of Akure in South-western Nigeria, is carefully examined and discussed. The study sampled five districts in the core residential neighbourhood of the city with a view to examine problems associated with slum formation in urban areas. The study make use of questionnaire administration, observation, housing demographic and facility survey as instruments for data collection. The results were analyzed with the aid of multiple linear regression and correlation models. Research findings show that poor housing system, lack of neighbourhood facilities and insufficient household services contribute 52.3% significant impacts to the poor quality of the environment at the city centers. The study also recognize the contribution of poverty level of dwellers in encouraging deplorable condition of their living environment. It is however suggested that extensive urban renewal program via the provision of basic services and economic revitalization be carried out in the area. This should be supported with improved sanitation strategies for sustainable management of the area.
“When you have half of Caironese in slums, when you don't have clean water, when you don't have a sewer system, when you don't have electricity, and on top of that you live under one of the most repressive regimes right now... Well, put all that together, and it's a ticking bomb. It's not of a question of threat; it is question of looking around at the present environment and making a rational prognosis.” ? Mohamed ElBaradei “Sustainability is now a big baggy sack in which people throw all kinds of old ideas, hot air and dodgy activities in order to be able to greenwash their products and feel good.” ? Kevin McCloud, Kevin McCloud's 43 Principles of Home: Enjoying Life in the 21st Century.
In the modern energy-demanding lifestyle there is an overwhelming need for exploring sources of energy which are renewable and eco-friendly. Bioconversion of biowaste streams for energy production is an increasingly promising option. Through the biogas value chain, bioconversion presents a very attractive route to valorise various biowaste and enables communities to meet their energy needs, conserve resources and protect the environment. However there are challenges in sustainable implementation of biogas technology. The book has therefore reviewed the biogas value chain from a critical sustainability perspective. It has also covered a detailed case study of the potential of biogas production from biowaste in Kenya and how it influences environmental sustainability. The evaluation of biowaste energy potential and the development of a simple yet effective methodology to assess its sustainability are some of the key issues that this book has addressed. In addition, the book also incorporates a thought provoking analysis of the potential contribution of biowaste-based biogas energy to environmental sustainability from an integrated industrial and domestic case study perspective.
Since decades people with disability are facing number of challenges in terms of inaccessible environment, lack of opportunities, discrimination and inequality. Inaccessible environment not only reduces the level of participation of people with disabilities but also exclude them from the mainstream society. According to World Bank 2007, India has 40 to 80 million population with disabilities and at least one in 12 households has a member with disability. Social and cultural attitudes become the barriers in isolating persons with disabilities from the mainstream society. Thus Environmental and Social accessibility ensures the equal opportunities for people with disability in terms of social, cultural, educational and economical aspects and thereby becomes important factor in mainstreaming people with disability (Dalal, 2006). This dissertation focuses on the physical and social environment of slum and how the environment becomes barriers for People with Locomotor and Visual Impairment in participating their day to day life. Slums are marked by poor infrastructure and if physical environment is poorly built, it can impair, disabled and handicap anyone (Dalal et al 1999)