HIV infection,a global pandemic,causes profound immunodeficiency. As CD4 cell count declines, the patient is at higher risk of developing a variety of Opportunistic diseases (OI’s) including infections and neoplasms. Factors like Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS),failure of ART,ART resistance and drug compliance have further modified the course of this disease. However, patients at different stages of their Anti Retroviral Therapy continue to develop OI. This study shows the pattern of infections occurring in HIV patients . A prospective, longitudinal, study was done during a 2 year period over 100 HIV patients with opportunistic infection in Bharati Medical College,Hospital and research centre, Pune, Maharashtra,India. Most common infection was pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis followed by oral candidiasis , herpes zoster and toxoplasmosis respectively. Maximum patients were in median age of 40 yrs, males of labourer group were more commonly affected in study. Multiple as well as single OI were seen in a significant number of HIV patients. This study will guide the beginners studying HIV regarding various opportunistic infections in HIV disease.
The HIV/AIDS pandemic has led to an increased incidence of severe opportunistic infections, including zoonoses and other animal-related hazards. People with HIV/AIDS are much more susceptible; in general, to zoonotic diseases caused by certain bacteria, virus, fungi and protozoa. The predominant causes of morbidity and mortality among HIV/AIDS patients are opportunistic infections. Hence, this book reviews our current understanding of the major zoonotic and animal-associated opportunistic infections playing a pivotal role in the epidemiology of AIDS and it reviews on the role of animals in the disease transmission and the role of veterinarians in zoonotic opportunistic infections prevention. Besides, it offers practical suggestions designed to reduce the risks posed by animals due to opportunistic pathogens thereby fills the gap which is left by physicians. Therefore, this book will serve as a reference to farmers and pet owners who are living with HIV/AIDS, veterinarians and physicians and anyone else who is involved in HIV/AIDS research.
In India, there is high HIV/AIDS prevalence population in cities like Pune. Various opportunistic infections affect different organs. Autopsy studies give an insight into the pathology especially by the infective agents, influencing the morbidity and mortality patterns in various geographic areas of the world. This study was undertaken to analyze the spectrum of pathologic lesions caused by opportunistic infections in kidneys in this part of the world.
Various governmental and non governmental efforts are being exerted to combat the HIV/AIDS pandemic by sentinel surveys. Unfortunately, there has not been any organized survey in Nigeria to extensively determine the opportunistic infections associated with HIV/AIDS. This book therefore, highlights specifically on some pulmonary bacterial and fungal opportunistic infections in Kano metropolis, the isolation and identification of opportunistic bacterial and fungal agents causing pulmonary infections, the relationships between pulmonary opportunistic pathogens and CD4 count and immune status and viral load of HIV positive clients. This will contribute towards management and care of AIDS clients and will provide the need for monitoring by health care facilities and related agencies.
Many of the opportunistic infections in HIV are caused by commensal bacteria which are otherwise harmless in a normal individual.The study was designed to compare the oral microbiota in normal and HIV infected individuals. The study tries to establish a significant shift in oral microflora in HIV infected patients. Our study is unique in that such a study of the oral commensals in HIV patients has never been reported. We found an increased colonization of the oral cavity by Micrococcus spp. which is a normal commensal of the skin.
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Immunoglobulins; IgG and IgM were screened among HIV/AIDS clients to determine previous and recent infections respectively by ELISA technique. Immunological test (CD4 count) was used to ascertain the immune status of the clients studied. It is hoped that this research project would elucidate on the importance of screening CMV immunoglobulins during the management and care of AIDS by healthcare team especially when screening for AIDS related opportunistic infections.
The second edition of this concise and practical guide describes infections in geographical areas and provides information on disease risk, concomitant infections (such as co-prevalence of HIV and tuberculosis) and emerging bacterial, viral and parasitic infections in a given geographical area of the world. Geographic approach means that it?s the only book to guide the health care worker towards a diagnosis based on the location of symptoms and travel history by encouraging the question ?where have you been?? New content covering MERS, Ebola, Zika, and infections transmitted during air and maritime travel Covers the major infectious disease outbreaks framed in their geographic setting such as? H7N9 ?bird flu? influenza, H1N1, Ebola, and Zika Outstanding international editor team with vast experience on various international infectious disease and as journal editors and key leaders in infection surveillance
The convergent distribution of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and helminth infections has led to the suggestion that infection with helminths exacerbates the HIV epidemic in developing countries. A large body of suggestive evidence in support of this hypothesis has been accumulated in many countries over the past two decades. Although 57% of the South African population lives in poverty and carry the highest burden of both HIV and helmith infection, the disease interactions are under-researched in South Africa. This book details work undertaken in Khayelitsha, an informal settlement in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, where both HIV and intestinal helminth infections are highly prevalent. The immune profile of adults who are either singly-or dually- infected with HIV and Ascaris lumbricoides and/or Trichuris trichuria, plus non-infected HIV negative controls, is described in relation to the ability to control HIV infection. Four different phenotypes that respond differently to helminth infection are described and immunological profile related to HIV pathogenesis analysed.
Renal transplant recipients can experience serious diseases from infections due to emergence of intestinal parasites, particularly opportunistic parasites. This book is about an analytical cross sectional study was to determine the frequency of intestinal parasitic infections with emphasis on opportunistic infections in renal transplant recipients (RTR) in Sudan using different diagnostic techniques, and showing the evaluation of each diagnostic technique used in the study regarding it’s sensitivity and specificity.
In 2004, an estimated 42 million people were living with HIV infection worldwide, mostly in resource-poor countries. Of these who would benefit, fewer than 5% were receiving combination antiretroviral therapy, even though such treatment reduces the complications of infection and has the capacity to produce near normal life expectancies for some patients with a previously lethal disease. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection/ Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a disease of the human immune system caused by infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). During the initial infection, a person may experience a brief period of influenza-like illness. This is typically followed by a prolonged period without symptoms. As the illness progresses, it interferes more and more with the immune system, making the person much more likely to get infections, including opportunistic infections and tumours that do not usually affect people who have working immune systems. Today, people are attracted to herbal therapies for many reasons, the most important reason being that, like our ancestors, we believe they will help us live healthier lives.
Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common opportunistic infection among HIV-infected and one of the major global public health challenges of this era.In Nepal, the burden of TB among HIV infected had been seen range from 10% - 20 % mainly the people of productive age. This study was designed to assess the public health burden of opportunistic TB infection among HIV infected. Information was collected from 144 HIV/AIDS patient who had visited the ART clinic of Bharatpur Hospital, Chitwan during the period of 10th May to 30th May 2012. Study showed the 9.7 percent prevalence of opportunistic TB among HIV infected and extra pulmonary TB rate was higher. The status of TB co-infection during the diagnosed HIV infected period was 28.4 percent including prevalence TB cases. The common health problems faced by HIV-TB co-infected were weakness , fever, weight loss and cough. Having history of TB infection before HIV diagnosis were at 4.8 times greater risk of getting opportunistic TB. Access to health related local non government organization in the community had a great impact for significantly low risk of HIV-TB co-infection.
Viral hepatitis B and C and HIV infections do occur in Uganda. While up to 10% of Ugandans are infected with hepatitis B, 6.4% of the population are infected with HIV. The overall prevalence of hepatitis C is not clearly established. This book describes the distribution common liver diseases among the HIV infected population in Uganda. It also discusses the common problems of testing methods for viral hepatitis C with plenty of false positive antibody reactions. This causes anxiety to patients especially in a country where confirmatory tests are almost inexistent. The book goes ahead to describe liver enzyme elevations in HIV infected patients who are receiving treatment. It ends by describing consequences of HIV and hepatitis B infections in Uganda.This book is a must-read for people who are interested in hepatitis B C and HIV in resource limited settings giving a wide spectrum of information on the Ugandan situation.
Most of the studies done in the field of HIV were focused around patients who are taking Anti Retro viral drugs .There are very limited number of studies are available for patients who are not under the treatment of Anti- Retro viral drugs. This work incorporates most of the recent findings that are relevant to the HIV/AIDS patients who are not an Anti-Retro Viral drugs. While formulating the health policies, it has been deemed necessary about that the clear understanding of the demographic profile and socio economic status of the people who are affected by the disease. This book deals with the demographic profile of HIV/AIDS patients ,route of transmission of HIV among the patients, Behavioural pattern of the patients, discordant couples ,hygienic practises followed by the patients, clinical profile of the patients and prevalence of opportunistic infections among them.So this will give the clear idea about the profile of the HIV/AIDS patients who are not on Anti- Retroviral drugs in Chennai, India.
The study presents an inventory, nutritional and anti-bacterial activity of medicinal plants used in the treatment of opportunistic infections for HIV/AIDS patients and their mode of use. The study done in eastern uganda where People identified 16 different opportunistic infections which can be treated by using herbs. 67 species of plants belonging to 64 genera and 39 families are used to treat the common infections associated to HIV/AIDS in the two districts. The plants were categorized as shrubs, herbs, trees and lianas. The most commonly used plant parts for treatment of infections were leaves and bark. Plants were prepared as concoction, decoction, maceration, infusion and juice. Anti-bacterial activity was done on 22 plant species. Ethanol and distilled water were used as solvents for extraction. The extracts were tested on Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Pseudomonas auriginosa (ATCC 27853) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and where proven active. Twenty four plant species were analyzed for nutritional composition. The plants contain proteins, fibres, fats, lipids, nitrogen free extract (NFE) and minerals.