Издание на английском языке. The Johns Hopkins Hospital 1998-1999 Guide to Medical Care of Patients With HIV Infection. / Руководство по уходу за пациентами с диагнозом ВИЧ инфекция. Госпиталь имени Джона Хопкинса 1998-1999 гг. This pocket guide provides guidelines for the care of HIV patients. Recommendations reflect the work of the AIDS care programme at Johns Hopkins. / Карманное руководство по уходу за ВИЧ-инфицированными пациентами. Рекомендации отражают работу по программе лечения СПИДа в Госпитале имени Джона Хопкинса
This book tries to figure out and explain those factors associated with tuberculosis co-infection among HIV/AIDS patients taking anti retro-viral therapy. The study published in this book is conducted at Nekemte hospital, which is government owned hospital serving more than two million people in the Western part of Ethiopia. The hospital is one of few health institutions providing TB/HIV healthcare services in the country.
Surgical Site Infection (SSI) remains one of the most important problems in post operative complication, contributing approximately 38% of all cases. There is no doubt that SSIs substantially contribute to prolongation of hospital stay and increase costs. However, it has been difficult to establish the extent SSI contributes to attributable mortality. Research has found that the likelihood of death for patients with SSI is twice that for patients without Surgical Site Infection. This book gives a fresh look on the incidence of postoperative wound infections among the patients undergoing surgical procedure, risk factors that predispose to postoperative wound infections and characterize pathogens associated with Surgical Site Infections at a tertiary hospital in Africa. It brings with it the sense of infection control in health care setup, which forms a basis of antibiotic stewardship.
Uganda is one of the highest consumer of alcohol in the world. However, HIV care and treatment programs have limited evidence based strategies for alcohol use among persons living with HIV. Instead HIV care and treatment programs have adopted a no alcohol position when on ART policy to deal with poor adherence among patients in care programs. In our findings, a half of the patients interviewed (50%, 95% CI 45-55) consumed alcohol. Men were more likely to consume alcohol compared to women (OR= 2.39, 95% CI 1.53-3.72) and lack of information on adverse effects of alcohol was associated with alcohol use. (OR= 0.54, 95% CI 0.33-0.86). HIV prevention and control programs need to consider alcohol use in reducing the rate of HIV transmission and re-infection among PLH in resource limited settings.
HIV infection,a global pandemic,causes profound immunodeficiency. As CD4 cell count declines, the patient is at higher risk of developing a variety of Opportunistic diseases (OI’s) including infections and neoplasms. Factors like Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS),failure of ART,ART resistance and drug compliance have further modified the course of this disease. However, patients at different stages of their Anti Retroviral Therapy continue to develop OI. This study shows the pattern of infections occurring in HIV patients . A prospective, longitudinal, study was done during a 2 year period over 100 HIV patients with opportunistic infection in Bharati Medical College,Hospital and research centre, Pune, Maharashtra,India. Most common infection was pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis followed by oral candidiasis , herpes zoster and toxoplasmosis respectively. Maximum patients were in median age of 40 yrs, males of labourer group were more commonly affected in study. Multiple as well as single OI were seen in a significant number of HIV patients. This study will guide the beginners studying HIV regarding various opportunistic infections in HIV disease.
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. With the advent of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) pandemic, the problem of TB has got worse. The incidence of TB in patients with HIV infection / AIDS is nearly 500 times higher than in the general population. In HIV infected patients tuberculosis may frequently present in sites other than the lungs, lymphadenitis being the most common but it may be in the bone, liver, or in almost any organ of the body. Disseminated tuberculosis (DTB) is also more common in patients with HIV infection. Diagnosis of TB is also difficult in patients with HIV infection as rate of sputum AFB positivity is less and chest X-Ray changes are also atypical. The prevalence of extrapulmonary TB is also higher in patients with HIV infection were obtaining clinical samples is difficult. The present work is done to evaluate role of Mycobacteremia, which is a simple and convenient test done by blood culture using MB\Bact method, in diagnosis of tuberculosis with or without HIV infection.
Many aspects of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS] have been described in detail in the literature. However, there has been very few articles on the phenomenon of Deep Vein Thrombosis [DVT] in the lower extremities of human immunodeficiency virus [HIV/AIDS] infected patients. There is reason to believe that the number of patients being admitted with Deep Vein Thrombosis in our hospital recently has increased compared with past records. Many patients have also been admitted with pulmonary embolism some of which were actually diagnosed at autopsy. Of note is that most of these patients admitted either with DVT or thrombosis at other sites are also infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Although some of them have other risk factors for thrombosis like obesity, infections (e.g. Tuberculosis) etc, the relationship between thrombosis and HIV infection has been documented by many researchers. It has been found that HIV infection predisposes to a hypercoagulable state and that the risk of venous thromboembolism is about 10times that expected among people without HIV. In addition, various abnormalities leading to a hypercoagulable state have been detected in HIV patients
HIV/AIDS leads to a wide spectrum of physical, psychological, social, emotional and economical toll on the sufferer. Discrimination and stigmatization consequent to infection of HIV/AIDS is widespread among families, communities and health-care providers. HIV/AIDS related stigma from health-care workers is a major barrier to effective responses to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The quality of care given by health-care workers to people living with HIV/AIDS is influenced by their knowledge, attitudes and willingness. Despite the emerging role of physical therapists for people living with HIV/AIDS, there is little information on their knowledge, attitudes and willingness to take care people living with HIV/AIDS. This book presents an assessment of knowledge, attitude and willingness to provide care for people living with HIV/AIDS among physical therapists.
Kidney has long been reported to be a target in patients with HIV infection. Presently HIV related kidney disease is among the commonest cause of kidney disorder globally. Kidney diseases have been reported at various stages of HIV infection. However, early studies were mainly on patients with advanced HIV infection thus kidney diseases were then thought to occur only in advanced AIDS. This book "KIDNEY and HIV infection" highlights the frequency of kidney disorder among the HIV population, including the epidemiological, clinical and laboratory characteristics of these patients. Also the relationship between the degree of immunosuppression as detected by the CD4 cell count and the severity of kidney disease as detected by the impairment in kidney function is detailed in this book. This is an indept scientific study carried out in a developing country with all its antecedent financial and political challenges. The book is recommended for research fellows, medical practitioners, epidemiologists, undergraduate and postgraduate students with interest in nephrology and infectious diseases.This book is also recommended for your institution and personal library.
Malnutrition is one of the earliest complications of HIV infection. This cross-sectional study (involving 100 newly diagnosed HIV positive patients) was carried out to evaluate the relationship between the nutritional status and immune status of HIV positive patients, and to look into the various factors contributing to malnutrition in these patients. In the study sample, 46% of the patients were malnourished according to body mass index, 85% were malnourished according to triceps skin-fold thickness and 98% were malnourished according to mid arm muscle circumference. Tuberculosis, chronic diarrhea, candidiasis and depression were associated with malnutrition. Nutritional, anthropometric and laboratory parameters were found to have significant correlation with the immune status. Hence, nutritional assessment of HIV-infected persons can identify those at risk for adverse outcomes from nutritional deficiencies and help in planning appropriate interventions.
HIV infected patients have been shown to be at an increased risk of developing lymphomas. With a rising incidence and prevalence of HIV infections especially in Sub-Saharan Africa where over 60% of the HIV-positive patients in the world is found, this would certainly have a bearing on HIV/AIDS-associated conditions, lymphomas inclusive. Assessment of the epidemiological, clinical and biological aspects of AIDS-related lymphomas in Cameroon, a developing country in Sub-Saharan Africa has been of interest. The analysis at the Hematologic Unit of the University Teaching Hospital in Yaounde, Cameroon, where most of these patients are seen, unveiled findings similar to several other studies on the same subject in other countries. This study offers basic information for medical students, doctors and researchers interested in AID-related lymphomas in Cameroon.
HIV/AIDS is a major public health problem in Sub-Sahara Africa. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been found to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The virus has been reported to enhance HIV replication and accelerate the progression of HIV to AIDS. In Nigeria there is a dearth of information on the prevalence of Cytomegalovirus infection among HIV/AIDS patients. This study was designed to determine the prevalence rate as well as risk factors for CMV infection among HIV/AIDS patients in Ilorin, Nigeria. A cross sectional study was carried out among consecutively recruited HIV sero-positive patients attending the HAART clinic at U.I.T.H, Ilorin between October 2008 to September 2009. A volume of 5 ml blood sample was collected from each consenting participant as well as age and sex matched HIV sero-positive control group . The sera was assayed for CMV IgG/IgM using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). A semi-structured pre-tested questionnaire was also used to assess the risk factors for CMV infection among HIV sero-positive participants
Infection with HIV has different epidemiological and clinical profile. But there is no enough information that shows patient profile throughout the country. There for to assess the epidemiological, immunological and clinical future of HIV positive patients, this follow up study was conducted in Bishoftu Hospital, Ethiopia. The data source of this study was patient medical records that have enrolled in care and treatment between Septmber 2007 and November 2009. A Total of 600 patients’ medical record was selected and reviewed using systemic sampling technique. The study found out that young individuals, females, urban dwellers, low educated and unemployed were the predominant groups enrolled for treatment. Most of the patients were showed clinical sign and symptoms during enrollment and their CD4 also low but it showed increment gradually. Therefore understanding of patient epidemiological, clinical and immunological future will help to design effective prevention and intervention strategies for HIV infection.
Injecting drug users (IDUs) are at risk of infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). Independently, each of these viruses is a serious threat to health, with HIV ravaging the body’s immune system, and HCV causing cirrhosis, liver cancer and liver failure. Furthermore, co-infection with HIV/HCV weakens the response to antiretroviral therapy in HIV patients. IDUs with HIV/HCV co-infection are at a 20 times higher risk of having liver-related morbidity and mortality than IDUs with HIV alone. In Viet Nam, studies to ascertain the prevalence of HIV in IDUs have found high rates, but little is known about their HCV status. Therefore this book provides IDU HIV/HCV co-infection rates, in addition to the prevalence of HCV and HIV, and identifies factors associated with these viruses among 455 IDUs at four drug treatment centers in Ha Noi, Viet Nam. The availability of information about HIV/HCV co-infection in this vulnerable group will be of benefit to investigators and programmers addressing the problems of identifying and providing more appropriate treatment to HIV-positive IDUs.