HIV/AIDS is a major public health problem in Sub-Sahara Africa. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been found to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The virus has been reported to enhance HIV replication and accelerate the progression of HIV to AIDS. In Nigeria there is a dearth of information on the prevalence of Cytomegalovirus infection among HIV/AIDS patients. This study was designed to determine the prevalence rate as well as risk factors for CMV infection among HIV/AIDS patients in Ilorin, Nigeria. A cross sectional study was carried out among consecutively recruited HIV sero-positive patients attending the HAART clinic at U.I.T.H, Ilorin between October 2008 to September 2009. A volume of 5 ml blood sample was collected from each consenting participant as well as age and sex matched HIV sero-positive control group . The sera was assayed for CMV IgG/IgM using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). A semi-structured pre-tested questionnaire was also used to assess the risk factors for CMV infection among HIV sero-positive participants
Injecting drug users (IDUs) are at risk of infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). Independently, each of these viruses is a serious threat to health, with HIV ravaging the body’s immune system, and HCV causing cirrhosis, liver cancer and liver failure. Furthermore, co-infection with HIV/HCV weakens the response to antiretroviral therapy in HIV patients. IDUs with HIV/HCV co-infection are at a 20 times higher risk of having liver-related morbidity and mortality than IDUs with HIV alone. In Viet Nam, studies to ascertain the prevalence of HIV in IDUs have found high rates, but little is known about their HCV status. Therefore this book provides IDU HIV/HCV co-infection rates, in addition to the prevalence of HCV and HIV, and identifies factors associated with these viruses among 455 IDUs at four drug treatment centers in Ha Noi, Viet Nam. The availability of information about HIV/HCV co-infection in this vulnerable group will be of benefit to investigators and programmers addressing the problems of identifying and providing more appropriate treatment to HIV-positive IDUs.
One of the important goals of any health system is to deliver high quality health services and respond to the needs of service users. Patients' satisfaction is one of the most sensitive indicators of quality of services as it measures the gap between what is expected and ideal from one side and what actually exists in reality. The success or failure of any hospital is largely depends on the satisfaction met by the patients on various services offered. European Gaza Hospital is governmental hospital providing free of cost treatment to people lived in Gaza Strip. Improving the quality of care and patients satisfaction in European Gaza Hospital, mostly emergency department is a vital and necessary activity. The Book is based on a cross-sectional study to determine the patient's satisfaction-dissatisfaction of regarding health care service provided by EGH ED.Seventy three percent of patients were satisfied with overall emergency care, the highest rates were observed in nursing care (83.1%). This book indicated the need for evidence-based interventions in emergency care services in areas such as medical care, nursing care, courtesy of staff, physical comfort and waiting time.
This research is a cross-sectional study to investigate the association between CD4+ cell count, intestinal parasites and diarrhea in HIV infected patients in Khartoum State, Sudan between the years 2007 – 2010. The study was conducted on 657 HIV infected and non-infected patients, of the study sample 423 were HIV positive patients. The HIV positive patients in the sample were divided into two categories the first on ART and the second without ART. Stool samples were collected from patients to diagnose parasitic infections by examination of a single stool specimen as fresh wet mount preparation, formol-ether concentration technique and staining. CD4 counts were recorded to assess the status of HIV infection vis-a-vis parasitic infection. The results showed that diarrhea was more prevalent in HIV infected than in HIV non-infected patients. Patients with chronic diarrhea had lower CD4 cell counts. The study reached very significant and important conclusions in the association between CD4+ cell count, intestinal parasites and diarrhea which all can lead to better diagnose for the treatment of HIV infected patients.
A mother who is HIV positive not only worries of her health but also of the risk of transmitting the infection to her child. Health care workers intervene to prevent infection during pregnancy and child birth. There after infection is only likely to occur with breastfeeding hence replacement feeding is preferred to prevent HIV infection amongst mothers. It's sustainability in economically constrained societies can lead to malnutrition. The results of the study carried out in Nairobi, Kenya reveal the nutrition status of breastfed and replacement fed infants. Though breastfeeding carries a risk of HIV infection it leads to better nutrition status in the children.
A most important function and aim of a university hospital is to educate students. The other main role of these hospitals is to care and protect their clients/patients. However, deaths in such university hospitals attributed to medical error are estimated to be the third leading cause of death. The involvement of students in patient care is considered to be the cause of these much death. 26.8% patients had negative attitude to health science students who were in clinical practice. Medical students are our future health care takers therefore they should be skilled in practice, but their lack of clinical knowledge, inexperience and lack of confidence let them vulnerable to not to have positive acceptance by patients. Every problem has a solution, only if we perhaps know the gap in our attitude make our attitude positive.
Completely updated for 2017, Fundamentals of HIV Medicine is a comprehensive clinical care publication for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Published by the American Academy of HIV Medicine, the book offers physicians, pharmacists, nurse practitioners, and other care providers the most up-to-date overview of the latest HIV treatments and guidelines plus online access to CME. The online access expires April 2018. Embodying the AAHIVM's commitment to promoting uniform excellence in care of seropositive patients, Fundamentals of HIV Medicine 2017 empowers health professionals to deliver standardized, life-sustaining treatment to the patients who need it most. It will serve as an essential clinical reference and provide valuable career enrichment to users across the spectrum of HIV care, treatment, and prevention.
Both HIV and Tuberculosis infections are associated with lipid peroxidation and antioxidant imbalance. Pathology of the two produce free radicals which lead to lipid peroxidation indices one of which is Malondialdehyde (MDA) and to disease progression due to CD4 cells apoptosis. The study was carried out with the objective of determining Serum MDA, Vitamin E, CD4, CD8 and lipid peroxidation index (LPI) in four different subgroups comprising of HIV, Tuberculosis and HIV/TB co-infected patients and the Controls with a view to assessing the interaction between oxidants and antioxidants in the course of HIV/TB co-infection. The higher MDA result from the subjects supports the assertion that HIV/TB co-infection is associated with increased lipid peroxidation and lower antioxidant potential. It can therefore be concluded that co-infection with Tuberculosis exacerbates oxidative stress in HIV patients, while treatment enhances their anti-oxidant status and ameliorates the oxidative stress.
Home-based care has been one of the most effective community care strategies in developing countries for people living with HIV/AIDS in their AIDS stage. This is because the poorly equipped and highly understaffed public health systems are failing to cope with the extra demand of caring for the AIDS patients (in and out of hospital). The HBC programs traditionally have been providing physical, emotional, spiritual and palliative care to the chronically and terminally ill patients. Up to 90% of care for patients in developing countries is done in homes. However, the increased and widespread accessibility of people living with HIV/AIDS to antiretroviral therapy in Zambia through the public health system is changing the type of demands by the PLWHAs on the HBC services. Many formerly bedridden patients are now well and what they need most is support to restart their livelihoods. They also need support and monitoring of their adherence to ART. Some HBC programs have started changing to meet these new and evolving needs, albeit at a slow pace. The consequences of delayed responses to these changing needs is the increased likelihood of PLWHA loosing the gains made.
Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death and common presenting illness among people living with HIV. Likewise, HIV infection is more common among tuberculosis patients than among the general population. The consequence of failing to diagnose TB in person living with HIV or of not diagnosing HIV in a TB patient are severe. The aim of this study was to asses HIV/TB program &identify challenges to effective implementations. The findings revealed out 102 HIV positive patients registered in October 2008 in both facilities, 14(13.7%) of them have been screened for Tuberculosis. None of the patients has been put on IPT, whereas 74.5% of HIV positive patients were put on CPT. out of 61 illegible patients for antiretroviral therapy, 59% of them were put on this regimen. Out of 93 registered tuberculosis patients 67.7% of them were screened for HIV and 26.9% of them were found to be HIV positive. Among these 52.9% of them were put on CPT and 41.1% were put on ART. Both facilities didn’t have HIV/TB coordinator but they have trained person on HIV/TB. There was no adequate resources allocated for both facilities, no adequate room for ART, TB and data clerks.
A pregnant woman with HIV infection has an approximately 30% chance of passing the virus on to her newborn baby. Prevention of Parent-To-Child Transmission (PPTCT) is a specific programme that provides a comprehensive, family-centred spectrum of support and clinical services along with other public health initiatives, to prevent the transmission of HIV from parents to their baby. 2984 samples from pregnant female attending the antenatal clinics of MGM Hospital, Kalamboli, were tested for detection of HIV antibodies. Out of 2984 patients visiting antenatal clinics 17 (0.56%) were reactive to HIV. The specificity of Comb AIDS-RS advantage-ST: HIV1+2, SD-Bioline and Pareekshak test was found to be same. The sensitivity and specificity of all three immunochromatography tests was 100% as compared to ELISA. Results indicated that all three rapid tests, inspite of its rapidity and simplicity have same sensitivity and specificity as ELISA. The need of the hour is to provide PPTCT services in as many PHCS and private sector hospital as possible utilization of these services can be improved by creating awareness among the pregnant woman regarding the need and benefits of getting tested.
The present book studies the effectiveness of routine nutrition assessment offered to improve the nutrition status, well-being and quality of life of people living with HIV and AIDS attending HIV treatment and care at Hewu Hospital in Chris Hani District of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. With the knowledge that HIV and malnutrition are interlinked, a great need for on-going nutritional assessment becomes critical in the treatment and care of people living with HIV and AIDS. In the absences of ARV treatment , people living with HIV and AIDS have a tendency to lose weight and ultimately become undernourished. At the same time ARV treatment is known to be associated with longer life span hence people living with HIV and AIDS tend to gain weight becoming overweight or obese.
Completely updated for 2017, Fundamentals of HIV Medicine is a comprehensive clinical care publication for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Published by the American Academy of HIV Medicine, the book offers physicians, pharmacists, nurse practitioners, and other care providers the most up-to-date overview of the latest HIV treatments and guidelines. Embodying the AAHIVM's commitment to promoting uniform excellence in care of seropositive patients, Fundamentals of HIV Medicine 2017 empowers health professionals to deliver standardized, life-sustaining treatment to the patients who need it most. It will serve as an essential clinical reference and provide valuable career enrichment to users across the spectrum of HIV care, treatment, and prevention.
In the Sub Saharan Africa and on global scope, Uganda has an outstanding account of HIV/AIDS infection. HIV/AIDS is a chronic infection which requires huge resources in its management, besides knowledge on the rate of HIV infection transition from one stage to another is scanty. This paper sheds light on the estimates of HIV infection progression within resource limited settings and its co-factors among children. The paper is framed in lifecourse theoretical perspective to appraise the chronological effect of demographic and socioeconomic factors on the lifecourse of HIV-AIDS. Using Kaplan Meier and Cox proportional hazard model as methods of analysis, the paper indicates that, the duration of exposure to HIV infection contributed in each stage decreases with progressive amplification in the infection, increasingly short expectation of life once a child progresses from asymptomatic stage. Thus, to optimize survival time on HIV infection lifecourse, HIV/AIDS care and treatment should strive to maintain HIV infection within asymptomatic levels yet initiating treatment on the earliest time possible.