This book try to show the effect of CD4 count WHO staging TB exposure and age on survival of HIV/AIDS patients in two district Hospitals in southern Ethiopia in addition to that it shows the impact of some routine laboratory result on survival of HIV patients and in Ethiopia this routine activity is not done in standard way and this has a negative impact on survival of patients living with HIV/AIDS who are on ART treatment in some district Hospitals in southern Ethiopia
The consideration for designer of modern health care facilities is not only to provide a clean and efficient health care environment. Patients’ health, safety, emotions are not only depend on staff ’s professional skill, and the environment also has healing benefits, which won more recognition. Specialized hospital focuses on one medical discipline, its space design thus must carefully consider specialized medical and procedure model and patients’ special requirements. Children’s hospital (pediatrics/adolescent), women’s hospital (obstetrics and gynecology), cancer centre (cancer and radiotherapy and chemotherapy) and mental health hospital included in this book are “artworks” with healing function, which created by architects, interior designers, ar tists and health care staff together.
Urinary tract infection is a common medical problem; sometimes, leading to the number of deaths either from acute infection or from chronic renal failure. This study was conducted in Western regional Hospital Pokhara among patients suspected of UTI from June 2009 to April 2010. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of UTI in patients, etiology of UTI, antibiotic susceptibility profile, to isolate the multi-drug resistant strains (MDR-strains).Altogether, 500 samples were investigated by conventional semi-quantitative culture technique. The pus cell count, red blood cell count, and epithelial cell count was performed for detection of UTI. Out of 500 urine samples, 23.2% showed significant growth while 76.8% samples showed non significant growth. Also, among the 116 isolates from the samples (30.17%) isolates were from the male and (69.82%) isolates were from the female patients. Age group 0-20 and 21-40 have the higest prevalence of UTI in case of male and female patient respectively.
Missed nursing care MNC dangerously impacts on the staff nurse and patient outcomes as for example, units with higher rates of missed care and absenteeism had more dissatisfied staff nurses with intention to leave in addition, the missed care aspects have been correlated with patients’ outcomes such as falls, medication errors, bed sores and nosocomial infections. The research was conducted to determine the correlates of MNC at six selected medical intensive care units in EL Manial Specialized hospital and El Manial University hospital. The convenience sample of staff nurses working on the six units who took a daily patient assignment and provided direct patient care, has more than one year experience in their worked units and accepted to participate in this research. Data were collected by using two different methods as the modified MISSCARE self reporting questionnaire and missed nursing care observational checklist. Results concluded that there was a significant difference between perceived and observed nursing care elements being missed and the most reported factors were related to patient, hospital systems & policies and nursing staff.
Until the past decade, clinicians and researchers assumed that the medical evaluation and treatment of both women and men were the same. This archaic and dangerous notion persisted in spite of the clear anatomic and physiologic differences between the genders. Today, we fully understand that this paradigm is false. In all specialties of medicine, practitioners and researchers are beginning to consider the influence of sex and gender and how it should inform the care of their patients. This book focuses on the issue of sex and gender in the evaluation and treatment of patients specifically in the delivery of acute medical care. It serves as a guide both to clinicians interested in the impact of sex and gender on their practice and to researchers interested in the current state of the art in the field and critical future research directions.
The effect of HIV/AIDS have been felt in every corner of the world either directly or indirectly. To date there is no drug or vaccine, cure or prevention of HIV available, Therefore to prevent infection of the virus is by avoiding behaviour that will put individual at a risk of infection such as sharing of needles and having unprotected sex.Infection is a very complex affair because many people who get infected are unaware or do not reveal the symptoms. This study intended to assess the use of condoms as a method of protection aginst HIV/AIDS infection among youths, with specific objectives of determining the extent of knowledge and popularity of condom use and further to evaluate the sourcing avenues of condoms and there respective ease of access, to find out the youths perception on the effectiveness of condoms as a method of protection against HIV infection and to determine the safety and acceptability of use. The study adopted the use of a descriptive study design with a target population of all youths of Kisumu - Kano youth programme.
Effectiveness of a health institution: hospital depends on its goals and objectives, its strategic location, soundness of its operations, and efficiency of its management systems. The administrator's effectiveness depends upon the efficiency with which he is able to achieve the goals and objectives. Some of the major factors determining the effectiveness of a health institution include patient care management and patient satisfaction. Effective computerised systems and procedures need to be implemented to ensure proper utilisation of limited resources toward quality health care. The power of computerisation in Medicare cannot be underestimated, whereby network of integrated systems maintaining patient database for hospital services in the areas of Pathology, Radiology, Medical Research, In-patient Admissions and Billing, Medical Stores and Pharmacy are operational. The implementation of the above modules will evolve user-friendly computerised systems which are loved and care by all.
Nosocomial infection (NI) is an infection acquired whilst staying, visiting or working in a hospital or healthcare facility. ? It is also defined as an infection acquired in hospital by a patient who was admitted for a reason other than that infection or an infection occurring in a patient in a hospital or other health care facility in whom the infection was not present or incubating at the time of admission. ? One of the risk factors for such infection is bacterial contamination of hospital wards indoor air by bacteria. In view of that, the microbiological quality of air can be considered as a mirror of the hygienic condition for hospital wards.
In 2004, an estimated 42 million people were living with HIV infection worldwide, mostly in resource-poor countries. Of these who would benefit, fewer than 5% were receiving combination antiretroviral therapy, even though such treatment reduces the complications of infection and has the capacity to produce near normal life expectancies for some patients with a previously lethal disease. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection/ Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a disease of the human immune system caused by infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). During the initial infection, a person may experience a brief period of influenza-like illness. This is typically followed by a prolonged period without symptoms. As the illness progresses, it interferes more and more with the immune system, making the person much more likely to get infections, including opportunistic infections and tumours that do not usually affect people who have working immune systems. Today, people are attracted to herbal therapies for many reasons, the most important reason being that, like our ancestors, we believe they will help us live healthier lives.
The convergent distribution of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and helminth infections has led to the suggestion that infection with helminths exacerbates the HIV epidemic in developing countries. A large body of suggestive evidence in support of this hypothesis has been accumulated in many countries over the past two decades. Although 57% of the South African population lives in poverty and carry the highest burden of both HIV and helmith infection, the disease interactions are under-researched in South Africa. This book details work undertaken in Khayelitsha, an informal settlement in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, where both HIV and intestinal helminth infections are highly prevalent. The immune profile of adults who are either singly-or dually- infected with HIV and Ascaris lumbricoides and/or Trichuris trichuria, plus non-infected HIV negative controls, is described in relation to the ability to control HIV infection. Four different phenotypes that respond differently to helminth infection are described and immunological profile related to HIV pathogenesis analysed.
HIV fuels progression to active disease in people infected with TB.The burden of tuberculosis is greatest in the developing world, where together with human immune deficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis is over whelming health services, and it accounts for 26% of avoidable deaths, 80% of those who are in their most economically productive years of 15-54.The HIV/AIDS pandemic has substantially altered the epidemiology of tuberculosis.HIV/AIDS poses a potential threat to TB Control in India, with a potential to increase the incidence of TB in some parts of the country.
The world is seeing unprecedented numbers of people infected with drug-resistant tuberculosis(DR-TB) in patients who have previously failed tuberculosis (TB) treatment and also in patients newly diagnosed with TB. “Left untreated, the infectious disease is lethal, but treatment today puts people through two years of excruciating side effects, including psychosis, deafness and constant nausea, with painful daily injections for up to eight months. Barely half of people get cured” – Press release by Medecins Sans Frontieres - Access Campaign, March 19, 2013 (msfaccess.org/TBmanifesto). The advent and spread of DR-TB posses a great challenge in the treatment of TB, especially among patients also infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Namibia is an example of a country that is currently coping with a dual burden of HIV and HIV-associated TB. In 2009, 58% of all TB patients were HIV co-infected and 372 cases of DR-TB were reported. This research work, therefore, provides insights into the prevalence; outcome and risk factors of the adverse events associated with the treatment of DR-TB, and explores the potential role of HIV co-infection.
Multiple organs dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is one of the most challenging clinical problems in the intensive care unit. MODS is the main cause of death in ICUs. Therefore the critical care nurse has an important role regarding identification and management of predisposing factors that may decrease the incidence of MODS and improve patients' outcomes. The current study aimed at identification of factors predisposing to organ(s) dysfunction among critically ill adult patients at a selected Cairo University Hospital and to suggest a nursing intervention protocol. Predisposing factors to organ(s) dysfunction were found to be as heart failure; hypertension; diabetes; and chest infection. Mild degree of organs dysfunction were most frequently noticed throughout ICU stay.
HIV/AIDS is a health problem in Cote d'Ivoire. With a prevalence rate of 4.7% in the general population aged between 15-49 years old (AIS CI-2005), the epidemic is generalized. As part of the second phase of the Global Fund, the measurement of indicators is a priority for the country. Where the conduct of an evaluation survey that will, in comparison with the baseline (February 2008), to assess the impact of the program The objective of the survey are: (i) to Evaluate the survival rate of people living with HIV after 12-18 months of antiretroviral treatment, (ii) to assess the main determinants of survival of patients on ARV and (iii) to determine the percentage of HIV-negative children (18-24 months) born to seropositive mothers. The results of the study showed that the survival rate of 12 months is estimated at 75% for patients placed on ARV between July 2007 and April 2008 against 71.7% for patients placed on ARV between January 2006 and December 2006, an Increase of 3.3%. Regarding children born to seropositive mothers, the proportion of children tested between 18-24 months is low (11%). The percentage of HIV-negative children born to HIV-positive mothers is estimated to 61.2%