Invasive disease due to Haemophilus influenzae typeb (Hib) is common in both HIV infected and un-infected children and immunisation with Hib conjugate vaccines is recommended. However, a few studies done showed that HIV infection blunts antibody response to childhood vaccines. The main objective of this study was to assess the ability of both HIV infected and un-infected Ugandan infants seen at Mulago hospital to mount protective antibody responses and highlight some of the factors that affect response. 159 infants were recruited; 8 were lost to follow up. Of the 151 analyzed, 53 were HIV infected and 98 un-infected. The serum antibody responses were determined by ELISA just before the 3rd dose and a minimum of one month after the dose. 81.6% of the HIV un-infected and 56.6% of the HIV infected achieved protective antibodies after the 3rd dose. 3 doses were better than 2 for both groups. Independent predictors for inadequate antibody response were HIV infection and splenomegally in an HIV infected infant Vitamin A had a potentiating effect on response in infants above 6 months. The study results formed a basis for evaluating the efficacy of the Hib conjugate vaccine in the country.
The development in radiotherapy has grown fast, so patient care staff must deal with this development and the new aspect on care of cancer patient. The basic structures in patient care have not changed, that is; the patient and his care staff must be seen as one team in the hospital. The patient is the reason for the existence of this health organization as a whole, which has no life, no purpose, and no value without him. This makes the patient the most important person in the hospital. As the hospital personnel share the common purpose of being there to serve patients, so patients have in common the feature of being in need of help. This book teaches some principals of radiotherapy and chemotherapy and gives an introduction to care of cancer patients. It gives a basic introduction to the concepts of psychological aspects of cancer, as well as the basics of side effects and toxicity of radiation and Chemotherapy treatment and a comprehensive overview of how to treat them.
HIV/AIDS related stigma and discrimination are probably as old as the disease itself. Despite the fact that Sweden is one of the countries providing top quality medical care to people living with HIV/AIDS, the epidemic of HIV related stigma and discrimination looms large at different levels in the Swedish society. This paper sets out to discover how stigma and discrimination are obstacles to HIV prevention, care and treatment. The main findings of this study include among others: that HIV/AIDS related stigma and discrimination exists in Sweden and it is a big obstacle to HIV/AIDS prevention, care and treatment. Forms of stigma include self stigma, which is the most common form of stigma in Sweden plus stigma from society. Discrimination is seen in the healthcare system, the media, migrations board and the justice system. The Swedish Communicable Diseases Act also seems to be enhancing stigma and discrimination. The negative treatment in society and various institutions, plus the harassment of People Living with HIV/AIDS by the media prevents people from testing for HIV/AIDS and also from seeking care and treatment.
There is a rising prevalence of blood borne infections such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) world wide and especially so in developing countries. This study was conducted to establish the prevalence rate of HIV amongst pregnant women and to determine the risk to which their neonates are exposed to in this centre. Anonymous and unlinked blood samples of 277 pregnant women attending antenatal clinic between the period of January 2005 - December 2006 at the Amassoma General Hospital in Southern Ijaw local government area of Bayelsa State, located in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria were tested for HIV-1. They were aged between 15 and 44 years. The prevalence of HIV-1 in these pregnant women was 3.96%. The women responded to counseling and other preventive measures to ensure that the risk of vertical transmission was low.
The aim of this research is to assess the level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and its risk factors, attitude towards HIV/AIDS and AIDS patients and its transmission and to identify high risk behaviors associated with HIV/AIDS among university students in Xinjiang. A cross–sectional survey was conducted among students enrolled Xingjiang University and Xinjiang Medical University. Data was collected using self-administered standardized questionnaire on KAP re HIV/AIDS among 400 students. Mean knowledge scores is significantly different by ethnicity, sex, subject major, and year of study in university. Only 33.3% of the respondents had positive attitude towards HIV/AIDS patient. With regards high risk behavior associated with HIV transmission, 15.8% had at least 1 risk behavior related to unprotected sexual exposure Conclusion: HIV/AIDS health education efforts should be intensified in non-medical universities, among female, first year and Uyghur and other minorities’ students. About two-thirds of the students had negative attitude towards HIV/AIDS and HIV/AIDS patients. Around 15% of these students reported having at least 1 high risk behavior related to unprotected sex
According to KDHS (2003) the mortality of under five years children in Kenya continued to increase from 112/1000 in1998 and 115/1000 in 2003. This is attributed to URTI, diarrhea, measles, malaria, malnutrition, HIV/AIDS and their combinations. Access to care is hampered by prevalence of costly specialized services as the poor are left with fewer affordable care options. In 2006, UNAIDS noted that the Kenya ARV Access Program would have several challenges to the universal access related to prevention, treatment, care and support, inefficient commodity management, human resources and inadequate monitoring and evaluation strategies. Many barriers remain to scaling up HIV prevention, treatment and management of children in RPCs. Training of practitioners in the skills required to care for this category of children with HIV infection is necessary to increase the number receiving ART. Lack of availability of appropriate ARV drug formulation that is easily usable and inexpensive is a major impediment to optimal care for children with HIV. The purpose of this study was to investigate the management, financing, insurance and economic policies of ART for these children in Nyanza Region.
Inadequate monitoring in the peri-operative period and during the management of critically-ill patients may contribute to morbidity and mortality. "Peri-operative and Critical Care Monitoring" provides a concise, yet comprehensive summary of clinical medical monitoring, with particular emphasis on the "Human Monitor" for "Risk Assessment" of patients. It describes "Minimal Monitoring Standards" for machine, and different organ functions starting from human monitoring with the use of the simple stethoscope to the high-tech and invasive techniques. Simple, adaptive, and intelligent control strategies, based on the feedback concept are discussed together with their applications for the management of general anaesthesia, patient-controlled analgesia and therapy for diabetes mellitus, bronchial asthma and hypokalaemia. Ergonomics and bio-engineering management in the operating rooms and the intensive care units are explained."Peri-operative and Critical Care Clinical Monitoring" is intended to be a useful guide to physicians in the field of anaesthesia, intensive care, critical care, operative surgery and general medicine; and also for medical students and patients
Risk management has become a necessary activity in the administration of a hospital .The present study focused on assessment of some aspects of risk management in Main University Hospital in Alexandria (MUHA), including fire prevention and control measures , performance of hospital staff in providing some patient care activities and procedures which have the potential of risk of infection , knowledge of hospital staff regarding prevention of some occupational illnesses , training programs relevant to employees safety , and the role of relevant committees in implementation of risk management activities . The study was conducted in one general medical ward and one surgical ward in MUHA .Six checklists were designed to collect data about fire prevention and control measures and five patient care practices . Two questionnaires were prepared for interview with nurses , housekeepers and chairmen of safety related hospital committees namely : occupational health and safety committee , infection control committee and environment committee . The study revealed shortcoming of risk management in the MUHA .In spite of the presence of committee .
Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are infections that patients acquire during the course of receiving treatment for other conditions within a healthcare setting. HAI is the most common complication or comorbidity of hospitalized patients, and is becoming major worldwide causes of death and disability. Also, there are associated financial costs substantial to both patients and healthcare systems. HAIs are critical patient safety and healthcare quality issues. Prevention and reduction of such infection has become one of the top priorities for health care. We focused on healthcare-associated urinary tract infection (HAUTI), which is the most common type of HAI. We proposed an approach to build a detection model for HAI surveillance based on the variables extracted from the electronic medical records (EMRs). Moreover, we developed an integrated HAI surveillance information system (called iHAUTISIS) based on existing EMR systems of the hospital for improving the work efficiency of infection control professionals (ICPs). Therefore, the system can further facilitate the HAI surveillance and reduce ICPs’ surveillance workload.
Ischemic stroke is a major cause of neurological morbidity and mortality. It is extremely important to study the frequency of ischemic stroke patients presenting within window period and thus standing suitable for r-tPA as thrombolysis is an expensive medical intervention and is not available in any public sector hospital in Pakistan. The aim of this study was to determine frequency of ischemic stroke patients presenting within window period for intravenous thrombolysis with rTPA. Patients were evaluated for transferring time and the time lapse in hospital before starting treatment as pre-hospital and in-hospital delays are the major obstacles in achieving well-timed delivery of r-tPA. This study identified those patients likely to benefit from thrombolysis. At the same time, it identified the time lags and delays from the time of onset of stroke to delivery of r-tPA. This would help formulate a stroke emergency pathway designed to treat as many patients as possible with the shortest possible lead times via time-effective thrombolysis. This would also nudge the healthcare decision makers to infuse some funding into this very vital prospect.
The study was mainly based on the food served by the hospital to the in-patients The study was undertaken to find out the importance of nutrition and its role with regard to patients health and recovery from illness. It also aimed at finding out the level at which patients,’ management and health workers awareness of the necessity and importance of nutrition in health. Method: A case study design was used. Stratified sample size of 50 respondents was selected. T he respondents included doctors, nurses, hospital administrators, patients and attendants. Results: The hospital serves very little food to patients, which is half cooked and not nutritious. The high turn up rate of patients makes it more difficult for provision of food to the patients by the hospital. The hospital receives very little funds from the government not able to meet all the requirements, including buying food for patients. Conclusion: Good nutrition is necessary for in-patients. There is need to improve on the diet provided to the patients and their attendants.
Healthcare-associated infections (HCAI) are a major setback to any organization be it in Medicine or in Dentistry. Cross infection makes infection control practices important for health care personal’s to protect both patient as well as themselves. Hence, healthcare workers must know & implement standard infection control procedures & dispose biomedical waste properly for their own protection,for protecting patients & also to improve organization of work. Effective implementation of infection control procedures and adherence to standard precautions are challenging especially in resource-limited settings.
This manuscript analyses the interface between medicine and colonial society through the lens of gender. The work traces the growth of hospital medicine in nineteenth century Bengal and shows how it created a space-albeit small-for providing western health care to female patients. The book also explores the growth of Western medical education among women in Bengal.
This was a Retrospective Case-Control study conducted at the Antiretroviral department, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences(RIMS),Kadapa,India.The study was conducted to assess the incidence, prevalence, severity pattern, predictability, preventability of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to HAART, and to identify the risk factors for ADRs in HIV-positive patients receiving HAART. Patients between 2010 and May 2011 newly registered HIV patients on HAART therapy of either sex were included. Demographic details, occupations details, education, CD4 cell count, weight and hemoglobin (Hb),Laboratory data, drugs used and suspected ADRs observed were collected.This is the First Retrospective Case-Control study that was designed to evaluate the incidence of ARV therapy-induced ADRs in Indian HIV-positive patients.