The objective of this study is to estimate inflation threshold and examine its impact on the inflation-growth nexus in selected African regional economic communities. While a number of empirical studies exist in this area for developing countries, they bundle up countries from Asia, Africa and Latin America which do not have the same inflation experiences. This study therefore focuses on Africa. However, since African regional groupings themselves have different inflation experiences, non-linearity in the relationship between inflation and growth is explored within each grouping separately. The study uses dynamic panel threshold modeling recently suggested by Kremer et al. (2013) which extends the non-dynamic panel threshold model of Hansen (1999) and the cross-sectional threshold model of Caner and Hansen (2004). The results indicate that the estimated inflation threshold is different across the regional economic communities. Nonlinearity in inflation-growth nexus seems to hold in CEMAC, COMESA and SADC while it is questioned in WAEMU and WAMZ. For CEMAC, COMESA and SADC, the findings indicate that inflation above the threshold is harmful to growth. Some correlations are established in this study but further analysis is needed to suggest a policy.
Environmental pollution has increasingly become an issue of global concern because of climate change and consciousness for environmental sustainability. To this end, this paper investigates the relationship between energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and economic growth of the G8 countries over the period of 56 years spanning 1960 through 2015 using both the Fully Modified and Dynamic OLS estimation techniques. The empirical investigation establishes the critical roles played by energy consumption and CO2 emissions on economic growth but in substantially opposite directions. While that of the former positively enhances economic growth, on the one hand, the latter negatively deters it. In addition, a long-run relationship is equally established but with the varied direction of causality. Finally, the study offers significant policy implications directed at using energy resource efficiently as well as curtailing environmental contaminants.
In this paper, we examine nonlinear interrelationship between energy consumption and output level for a panel of G7 countries. For this purpose, we propose a nonlinear cointegration test in heterogeneous panels for testing the presence of a cointegrating relationship that follows a globally stationary exponential smooth transition (ESTR) process, and apply our test for investigating long-run relationship between energy use and economic growth in the case of the G7 countries. Our results suggest the presence of a long-run relationship between these two variables whereas adjustment to the equilibrium is inherently nonlinear. After establishing long-run relationship between energy consumption and output, we estimate a Panel Smooth Transition Vector Error Correction Model and apply nonlinear Granger causality tests in order to analyze the direction of the causality between these variables. We find that the causality between energy consumption and output level is dependent on the phases of business cycle. Our results highlight importance of taking account of possible nonlinearities in analysing output-energy causality nexus and designing energy policies.
Experience suggests that trade liberalization has contributed substantially to the remarkable growth of industrialised countries. However, for various reasons many developing countries have not yet been able to integrate successfully into global markets and reap the growth-inducing and poverty-reducing benefits of trade. This book argues that while developing countries are heavily represented in the WTO - accounting for about four fifths of its membership -there is still plenty of scope for the world trading system to work more effectively in their interests. The book examines the achievements of the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations in reforming the world trading system and the challenges to future reforms. It begins with an overview of the genesis of the world trading system and moves on to examine the key issues as they relate to developing countries. These include further liberalization of agricultural trade; abolition of the Multifibre Arrangement; environmental and labour standards; competition policy; regional integration in South East Asia; and the implications for developing Asian countries of the liberalization of the Chinese economy and its WTO membership. Furthermore, the book discusses the links between trade liberalization and poverty reduction -drawing on the experience of Asian countries - and puts forward arguments on how trade liberalization could effect a greater reduction in poverty. This is a timely and succinct presentation of the critical issues relating to the world trading system in the context of developing countries in general, and Asia-Pacific countries in particular. It will interest and inform a wide readership including scholars and students of development and international economics, and practitioners and policymakers concerned with international trade issues and global trade relations.
There is widespread concern that the explosive growth of the Internet is exacerbating existing inequalities between the information rich and poor. Digital Divide sets out to examine the evidence for access and use of the Internet in 179 nations across the world. A global divide is evident between industrialized and developing societies. A social divide is apparent between rich and poor within each nation. And within the online community, evidence for a democratic divide is emerging between those who do and do not use Internet resources to engage, mobilize and participate in public life.
This book provides a new approach to the understanding of economic policy reform by placing it in the context of the perennial conflict between the two historical social forces of economic globalization and economic nationalism and examines successive attempts over the last half century to change the roles of state and market in the management of the Indian economy.
Working with principles from the fields of evolutionary and developmental biology (evo-devo), this fascinating work offers a new approach to analyzing child growth and development, examining each stage and transition in detail, from fetal development to preadulthood. Based on the author's in-depth review of the current literature and his own observations as a pediatric endocrinologist, the book demonstrates how the transitions between human life history phases represent unique periods of evolutionary adaptive response to the environment. In addition, the author explains why an understanding of these transition periods enables us to better understand the sequence and mechanisms of child growth as well as to better diagnose child growth disorders. Logically organized and clearly written, Evo-Devo of Child Growth: Sets a solid foundation of principles such as evolutionary thinking in medicine and child growth, life history theory, and heterochrony and allometry Examines the relationship between child growth and the theory of life history Applies evo-devo theory to fetal growth, infancy, childhood, juvenility, adolescence, and preadulthood Explores the trade-offs and adaptive phenotypic plasticity during transition periods Explains the role of life history theory in understanding and diagnosing growth disorders such as Down syndrome, Noonan syndrome, and Silver-Russell syndrome In addition to the author's own analysis and observations, this book also features notes from leading clinicians and evolutionary biologists, offering additional perspectives on the relationship between evo-devo and child growth and development. Evo-Devo of Child Growth provides a new perspective for evolutionary biologists to understand the phases and transitions of child growth. Moreover, it offers a new approach to help clinicians to better understand and diagnose a broad range of child growth disorders.
Women and Poverty analyzes the social and structural factors that contribute to, and legitimize, class inequity and women's poverty. In doing so, the book provides a unique documentation of women's experiences of poverty and classism at the individual and interpersonal levels. Provides readers with a critical analysis of the social and structural factors that contribute to women's poverty Uses a multidisciplinary approach to bring together new research and theory from social psychology, policy studies, and critical and feminist scholarship Documents women's experiences of poverty and classism at the interpersonal and institutional levels Discusses policy analysis for reducing poverty and social inequality
A provocative critique of the Obama administration's economic policies and an examination of America's difficult economic future During the 2008 presidential campaign, Barack Obama promised «a net spending cut» to make government smaller in order to reduce the deficit. But this huge increase in government spending and debt, and the resulting prospect of higher taxes, will make America a poorer country. Are Americans happier because the government has determined where this money should be spent? According to John Lott and Americans for Tax Reform President Grover Norquist, the answer is no, and in Debacle: Obama's War on Jobs and Growth and What We Can Do Now to Regain Our Future they explain why. Obama's economic policies have raised unemployment, slowed economic growth, dramatically raised the national debt, squandered taxpayer money through poor investments, and damaged the housing market. The book explains why Obama's policies on spending, taxes, and regulation have all worked to harm the recovery, increase unemployment, and depress housing prices. The Congressional Budget Office estimates that the deficits that President Obama proposes for the years from 2011 through 2020 come to a staggering $126,000 per family of four, and John Lott and Grover Norquist make clear why the costs outweigh the benefits Explains why Keynesian economics is more a way of transferring wealth to political constituencies than a legitimate economic theory for understanding how the economy operates Posits that Obama's economic policies were more an opportunity «to do big things» than to solve the country's economic problems Arguing that the policies of the Obama administration have created widespread economic chaos, Debacle is a bleak look at American finance from Grover Norquist.
The Contemporary Global Economy provides a lively overview of recent turbulence in the world economy, focusing on the dynamics of globalization since the 1980s. It explains the main drivers of economic change and how we are able to discern their effects in the world today. A lucid and balanced survey, based on extensive research in data and documents, accessible to the non-specialist Written by a renowned specialist in international economic relations with academic and government credentials Offers clear and engaging explanations of the main motors of economic change and how we are able to discern their effects in the world today The author assumes little knowledge of economic theory or financial markets Identifies the challenges for sustainable recovery and economic growth in the years ahead
Why did sixty million people leave Europe for overseas destinations between 1815 and 1930? What were the social and economic causes and effects of this mass migration? Why did some people emigrate and not others, and why did so many emigrants return to Europe? This short, comprehensive survey answers these and other questions regarding emigration from different parts of Europe. Written specifically for undergraduate students, it reviews the current literature in several European languages, summarizes both economic and demographic theories, and analyzes the relation between economic change in Europe and the emigration rate.
An innovator in contemporary thought on economic and political development looks here at decline rather than growth. Albert O. Hirschman makes a basic distinction between alternative ways of reacting to deterioration in business firms and, in general, to dissatisfaction with organizations: one, “exit,” is for the member to quit the organization or for the customer to switch to the competing product, and the other, “voice,” is for members or customers to agitate and exert influence for change "from within".
Business growth expert Steven S. Little gives you the real-world strategies you need to navigate your business through economic uncertainty If you're a business owner or leader, you're no doubt feeling inundated on all sides by the gathering forces of this financial downturn—shrinking revenues, tightening resources, anxious workers, plunging profits. When economic storms hit, it's the clear-minded and action-oriented leader that ultimately guides their business to success. In order to position your business for the growth opportunities ahead, it is imperative for you to address your most critical issues now. Duck and (re)Cover is the ultimate business owner's guide to prevailing and prospering through tough economic times. It questions much of the «conventional wisdom» we all hear about recessions and instead offers an irreverently common-sense approach to survival and growth in the midst of economic uncertainty. This book focuses on the most significant challenges and opportunities facing embattled businesses today. Recommends specific, and effective strategies for keeping your business up and running, even if the economy continues to stall Includes a wealth of been-there-done-that advice that will help you clear your own path to sustainable, profitable growth Written by Steven S. Little, former president of three fast-growth companies and author of The Seven Irrefutable Rules of Small Business Growth Now is not the time for timidity. Instead, make the bold moves recommend here to not only weather the storm but to chart a course for your ultimate destination.