Today, audiovisual archives and libraries have become very popular especially in the field of collecting, preserving and transmitting cultural heritage. However, the data from these archives or libraries – videos, images, sound tracks, etc. – constitute as such only potential cognitive resources for a given public (or “target community”). They have to undergo more or less significant qualitative transformations in order to become user- or community-relevant intellectual goods. These qualitative transformations are performed through a series of concrete operations such as: audiovisual text segmentation, content description and indexing, pragmatic profiling, translation, etc. These and other operations constitute what we call the semiotic turn in dealing with digital (audiovisual) texts, corpora of texts or even entire (audiovisual) archives and libraries. They demonstrate practically and theoretically the well-known “from data to meta-data” or “from (simple) information to (relevant) knowledge” problem – a problem that obviously directly influences the effective use, the social impact and relevancy and therefore also the future of digital knowledge archives. It constitutes, indeed, the heart of a diversity of important R&D programs and projects all over the world.
Today, audiovisual archives and libraries have become very popular especially in the field of collecting, preserving and transmitting cultural heritage. However, the data in these archives or libraries – videos, images, soundtracks, etc. – constitute as such only potential cognitive resources for a given public (or “target community”). One of the most crucial issues of digital audiovisual libraries is indeed to enable users to actively appropriate audiovisual resources for their own concern (in research, education or any other professional or non-professional context). This means, an adaptation of the audiovisual data to the specific needs of a user or user group can be represented by small and closed «communities» as well as by networks of open communities around the globe. «Active appropriation» is, basically speaking, the use of existing digital audiovisual resources by users or user communities according to their expectations, needs, interests or desires. This process presupposes: 1) the definition and development of models or «scenarios» of cognitive processing of videos by the user; 2) the availability of tools necessary for defining, developing, reusing and sharing meta-linguistic resources such as thesauruses, ontologies or description models by users or user communities. Both aspects are central to the so-called semiotic turn in dealing with digital (audiovisual) texts, corpora of texts or again entire (audiovisual) archives and libraries. They demonstrate practically and theoretically the well-known “from data to metadata” or “from (simple) information to (relevant) knowledge” problem, which obviously directly influences the effective use, social impact and relevancy, and therefore also the future, of digital knowledge archives. This book offers a systematic, comprehensive approach to these questions from a theoretical as well as practical point of view. Contents Part 1. The Practical, Technical and Theoretical Context 1. Analysis of an Audiovisual Resource. 2. The Audiovisual Semiotic Workshop (ASW) Studio – A Brief Presentation. 3. A Concrete Example of a Model for Describing Audiovisual Content. 4. Model of Description and Task of Analysis. Part 2. Tasks in Analyzing an Audiovisual Corpus 5. The Analytical Task of “Describing the Knowledge Object”. 6. The Analytical Task of “Contextualizing the Domain of Knowledge”. 7. The Analytical Task of “Analyzing the Discourse Production around a Subject”. Part 3. Procedures of Description 8. Definition of the Domain of Knowledge and Configuration of the Topical Structure. 9. The Procedure of Free Description of an Audiovisual Corpus. 10. The Procedure of Controlled Description of an Audiovisual Corpus. Part 4. The ASW System of Metalinguistic Resources 11. An Overview of the ASW Metalinguistic Resources. 12. The Meta-lexicon Representing the ASW Universe of Discourse.
Today, huge quantities of digital audiovisual resources are already available – everywhere and at any time – through Web portals, online archives and libraries, and video blogs. One central question with respect to this huge amount of audiovisual data is how they can be used in specific (social, pedagogical, etc.) contexts and what are their potential interest for target groups (communities, professionals, students, researchers, etc.). This book examines the question of the (creative) exploitation of digital audiovisual archives from a theoretical, methodological, technical and practical point of view, especially in three main directions of work: – The repurposing and republishing of existing audiovisual data. – The building of community-centric audiovisual archives. – The use of digital social media and Web 2 technology for the diffusion and sharing of audiovisual content. This book presents a series of concrete examples of creative uses of digital audiovisual corpora for education, research and cultural heritage preservation and valorization.
Marito is a young Peruvian who toils away at his local radio station, dreaming of becoming a writer, before his life is torn apart by two arrivals. The first is his recently divorced Aunt Julia, with whom he begins an affair which he must hide from his family. The second is Pedro Camacho, an eccentric scriptwriter whose radio dramas are keeping the whole city enthralled. This hilarious and mischievous novel interweaves the story of Marito's life with Pedro Camacho's increasingly insane tales to masterfully depict both Peru and the act of growing up in the 1950s. Mario Vargas Llosa won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2010, and Aunt Julia and the Scriptwriter is a perfect introduction to one of South America's most popular and lauded writers.