Many aspects of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS] have been described in detail in the literature. However, there has been very few articles on the phenomenon of Deep Vein Thrombosis [DVT] in the lower extremities of human immunodeficiency virus [HIV/AIDS] infected patients. There is reason to believe that the number of patients being admitted with Deep Vein Thrombosis in our hospital recently has increased compared with past records. Many patients have also been admitted with pulmonary embolism some of which were actually diagnosed at autopsy. Of note is that most of these patients admitted either with DVT or thrombosis at other sites are also infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Although some of them have other risk factors for thrombosis like obesity, infections (e.g. Tuberculosis) etc, the relationship between thrombosis and HIV infection has been documented by many researchers. It has been found that HIV infection predisposes to a hypercoagulable state and that the risk of venous thromboembolism is about 10times that expected among people without HIV. In addition, various abnormalities leading to a hypercoagulable state have been detected in HIV patients
Most of the studies done in the field of HIV were focused around patients who are taking Anti Retro viral drugs .There are very limited number of studies are available for patients who are not under the treatment of Anti- Retro viral drugs. This work incorporates most of the recent findings that are relevant to the HIV/AIDS patients who are not an Anti-Retro Viral drugs. While formulating the health policies, it has been deemed necessary about that the clear understanding of the demographic profile and socio economic status of the people who are affected by the disease. This book deals with the demographic profile of HIV/AIDS patients ,route of transmission of HIV among the patients, Behavioural pattern of the patients, discordant couples ,hygienic practises followed by the patients, clinical profile of the patients and prevalence of opportunistic infections among them.So this will give the clear idea about the profile of the HIV/AIDS patients who are not on Anti- Retroviral drugs in Chennai, India.
HIV/AIDS has long-lasting social and economic consequences on the affected persons. Although the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-infected persons prolongs both the time of progression to AIDS and the survival time, HAART is often associated with many challenges which include complex dosage regimens, pill burden, drug fatigue and food restrictions. In addition to these challenges are other drug-related problems (DRPs) encountered by some patients on HAART that include frequently reported risks of significant metabolic and biochemical complications. This book provides an evaluation of the biochemical profiles of HIV/AIDS patients on HAART for two to eight years as well as the impact of pharmacist’s intervention in reducing HAART related problems and improving the patients’ quality of life in HIV/AIDS care centre in Nigeria. Included in the assessment is the effect of pharmacy order form used across the country to prescribe medications for the patients on the incidence of DRPs. This book will be very useful to medical doctors, nurses, pharmacists and other healthcare professionals involved in the management of HIV/AIDS as well as healthcare policy makers
This book try to show the effect of CD4 count WHO staging TB exposure and age on survival of HIV/AIDS patients in two district Hospitals in southern Ethiopia in addition to that it shows the impact of some routine laboratory result on survival of HIV patients and in Ethiopia this routine activity is not done in standard way and this has a negative impact on survival of patients living with HIV/AIDS who are on ART treatment in some district Hospitals in southern Ethiopia
Women Living with HIV/AIDS are one of the group of people who have been experiencing the psychosocial challenges of HIV/AIDS. Psychologically, women diagnosed for HIV experienced fear, shame, powerlessness, sadness and other distressing emotional reactions. Socially, probably the single most challenge for women with HIV/AIDS is stigma. This Book, therefore, provides the strategies that women living with HIV/AIDS use to cope with the psychosocial challenges of HIV/AIDS in line with detail information about the psychosocial challenges of women living with HIV/AIDS. In view of this, it was found that women living with HIV/AIDS use both engagement and disengagement coping to deal with psychosocial challenges.How the study was conducted? To conduct the study exploratory research design and qualitative research approach were used.
HIV/AIDS is a major public health problem in Sub-Sahara Africa. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been found to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The virus has been reported to enhance HIV replication and accelerate the progression of HIV to AIDS. In Nigeria there is a dearth of information on the prevalence of Cytomegalovirus infection among HIV/AIDS patients. This study was designed to determine the prevalence rate as well as risk factors for CMV infection among HIV/AIDS patients in Ilorin, Nigeria. A cross sectional study was carried out among consecutively recruited HIV sero-positive patients attending the HAART clinic at U.I.T.H, Ilorin between October 2008 to September 2009. A volume of 5 ml blood sample was collected from each consenting participant as well as age and sex matched HIV sero-positive control group . The sera was assayed for CMV IgG/IgM using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). A semi-structured pre-tested questionnaire was also used to assess the risk factors for CMV infection among HIV sero-positive participants
My journey in understanding the key issues of recruitment and retention in HIV/AIDS clinical trials began with the belief that clinical trials are the cornerstone of advancing treatments and knowledge in HIV/AIDS related diseases. The purpose of the book is to give an account of the direction travelled by the author to get an in depth understanding of patients motives for taking part in HIV/AIDS clinical trial. Throughout the journey the author keeps focused on the Patients Voice? Why the patients voice? The literature review section contains a thorough review of what is known and what we still need to know about patients motives for taking part in clinical trial. Moving on from the literature review, is a conversation about the research methods that informed and shaped this journey of enquiry. After months, and months of data collection and data analysis, the author finally discusses and concludes the journey on: What motivates HIV infected people to take part in HIV/AIDS clinical trials
The aim of this research is to assess the level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and its risk factors, attitude towards HIV/AIDS and AIDS patients and its transmission and to identify high risk behaviors associated with HIV/AIDS among university students in Xinjiang. A cross–sectional survey was conducted among students enrolled Xingjiang University and Xinjiang Medical University. Data was collected using self-administered standardized questionnaire on KAP re HIV/AIDS among 400 students. Mean knowledge scores is significantly different by ethnicity, sex, subject major, and year of study in university. Only 33.3% of the respondents had positive attitude towards HIV/AIDS patient. With regards high risk behavior associated with HIV transmission, 15.8% had at least 1 risk behavior related to unprotected sexual exposure Conclusion: HIV/AIDS health education efforts should be intensified in non-medical universities, among female, first year and Uyghur and other minorities’ students. About two-thirds of the students had negative attitude towards HIV/AIDS and HIV/AIDS patients. Around 15% of these students reported having at least 1 high risk behavior related to unprotected sex
HIV infected patients have been shown to be at an increased risk of developing lymphomas. With a rising incidence and prevalence of HIV infections especially in Sub-Saharan Africa where over 60% of the HIV-positive patients in the world is found, this would certainly have a bearing on HIV/AIDS-associated conditions, lymphomas inclusive. Assessment of the epidemiological, clinical and biological aspects of AIDS-related lymphomas in Cameroon, a developing country in Sub-Saharan Africa has been of interest. The analysis at the Hematologic Unit of the University Teaching Hospital in Yaounde, Cameroon, where most of these patients are seen, unveiled findings similar to several other studies on the same subject in other countries. This study offers basic information for medical students, doctors and researchers interested in AID-related lymphomas in Cameroon.
This work investigates the role of n''angas(Traditional Healers) in the HIV/AIDS pandemic with reference to the Ndau people of Zimbabwe. The central question of the work is: Do n''angas cure HIV/AIDS? If not, what is it that they do that they think is curing? The research findings were that much of the claims by some n''angas and their clients are a result of information gap about HIV/AIDS. HIV/AIDS is not tested by the magico-pharmacology of the traditional Shona society. The success of n''angas in dealing with HIV/AIDS lies in the anti-retroviral role that traditional herbal medicine plays. At best, they can cure symptoms of HIV/AIDS with their traditional medicines. As a result, they can be said to be offering alternative traditional anti-retroviral treatment even without the medical expertise of establishing the CD4 counts. Payment is not made for curing the AIDS virus, but for treating the opportunistic infections associated with AIDS. As a matter of fact, patients do not seek AIDS cure, but medical assistance for physically observable complications. Interestingly, genuine n''angas sometimes do not even require payment, but consider themselves as providing a community service.
Though the experience of living with HIV and AIDS is unique to each individual, a common factor is dealing with the chronic pain associated with the condition. HIV and AIDS patients may experience pain in more than one area simultaneously; the pain may be caused by the disease itself or the therapies used to treat the disease. The most frequent reason for HIV and AIDS patients seeking health care in a primary health care clinic is pain. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of chronic pain management for HIV and AIDS patients in a primary health care clinic in Tshwane District. The design was a quantitative survey with a qualitative exploratory component. The data-gathering method was self-report using a semi-structured interview format and observation using a checklist. Data analysis was done with descriptive statistics and content analysis using open coding. The study revealed that patients’ pain was not effectively assessed, though more than 95% of the AIDS patients using the primary health clinic experienced moderate to severe pain.
HIV/AIDS leads to a wide spectrum of physical, psychological, social, emotional and economical toll on the sufferer. Discrimination and stigmatization consequent to infection of HIV/AIDS is widespread among families, communities and health-care providers. HIV/AIDS related stigma from health-care workers is a major barrier to effective responses to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The quality of care given by health-care workers to people living with HIV/AIDS is influenced by their knowledge, attitudes and willingness. Despite the emerging role of physical therapists for people living with HIV/AIDS, there is little information on their knowledge, attitudes and willingness to take care people living with HIV/AIDS. This book presents an assessment of knowledge, attitude and willingness to provide care for people living with HIV/AIDS among physical therapists.
Confirmed HIV positive patients who presented at the University College Hospital within the period of October 2008 to September 2009, were examined for KS. The pattern of presentation was described and the diagnosis of AIDS-KS confirmed histologically. To document the possible association of risk factors, a control group of HIV positive patients without KS, age and sex matched was recruited. Their clinical, immunological and virological characteristics were compared. The presence of HHV-8 infection was detected immunohistochemically using the HHV8 LANA1 (orf 73, clone13B10) antibody. Thirteen patients with AIDS-KS were recruited during the study period. The prevalence of AIDS-KS in Ibadan is 0.5% and the male: female ratio was 1.2:1. There was no statistical difference between the case and control groups’ number of lifetime sexual partners (P=0.61), history of STD (p=0.39), CD4 count (p=0.70) and HIV-1 viral load (p=0.20). All the patients presented with multiple sites of involvement. All the AIDS-KS tissue sections indicated a positive stain for the HHV-8 antigen (p=0.001) while the non-KS tissue sections were negative.
The present book studies the effectiveness of routine nutrition assessment offered to improve the nutrition status, well-being and quality of life of people living with HIV and AIDS attending HIV treatment and care at Hewu Hospital in Chris Hani District of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. With the knowledge that HIV and malnutrition are interlinked, a great need for on-going nutritional assessment becomes critical in the treatment and care of people living with HIV and AIDS. In the absences of ARV treatment , people living with HIV and AIDS have a tendency to lose weight and ultimately become undernourished. At the same time ARV treatment is known to be associated with longer life span hence people living with HIV and AIDS tend to gain weight becoming overweight or obese.