This revised and enlarged second edition of the popular textbook and reference contains comprehensive treatments of both the established foundations of magnetic fusion plasma physics and of the newly developing areas of active research. It concludes with a look ahead to fusion power reactors of the future. The well-established topics of fusion plasma physics – basic plasma phenomena, Coulomb scattering, drifts of charged particles in magnetic and electric fields, plasma confinement by magnetic fields, kinetic and fluid collective plasma theories, plasma equilibria and flux surface geometry, plasma waves and instabilities, classical and neoclassical transport, plasma-materials interactions, radiation, etc. – are fully developed from first principles through to the computational models employed in modern plasma physics. The new and emerging topics of fusion plasma physics research – fluctuation-driven plasma transport and gyrokinetic/gyrofluid computational methodology, the physics of the divertor, neutral atom recycling and transport, impurity ion transport, the physics of the plasma edge (diffusive and non-diffusive transport, MARFEs, ELMs, the L-H transition, thermal-radiative instabilities, shear suppression of transport, velocity spin-up), etc. – are comprehensively developed and related to the experimental evidence. Operational limits on the performance of future fusion reactors are developed from plasma physics and engineering constraints, and conceptual designs of future fusion power reactors are discussed.
Handbook for Clinical Trials of Imaging and Image-Guided Interventions is the first single-source, multi-disciplinary reference, based on the didactic sessions presented at the annual ‘Clinical Trials Methodology Workshop’ for radiologists, radiation oncologists and imaging scientists (sponsored by the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA)). It focuses on educating radiologists, radiation oncologists and those involved in imaging research with how to design and conduct clinical trials to evaluate imaging technology and imaging biomarkers. The internationally renowned contributors take a broad approach, starting with principles of technology assessment, and then move into specific topics covering the clinical trials of therapy and clinical research in imaging guided interventions including radiotherapy. They discuss the use of imaging as a predictor of therapeutic response, screening trial design, and the practicalities of how to run an efficient clinical trial and good working practices. Later chapters provide a comprehensive array of quantitative methods including: an introduction to statistical considerations in study design, biostatistical analysis methods and their role in clinical imaging research, methods for quantitative imaging biomarker studies, and an introduction to cost effectiveness analysis. Handbook for Clinical Trials of Imaging and Image-Guided Interventions will educate and prepare radiologists at all levels and in all capacities in planning and conducting clinical imaging trials.
Addressing recent challenges and developments in this growing field, Multisensor Data Fusion Uncertainty Theory first discusses basic questions such as: Why and when is multiple sensor fusion necessary? How can the available measurements be characterized in such a case? What is the purpose and the specificity of information fusion processing in multiple sensor systems? Considering the different uncertainty formalisms, a set of coherent operators corresponding to the different steps of a complete fusion process is then developed, in order to meet the requirements identified in the first part of the book.
This second edition of a popular textbook is thoroughly revised with around 25% new and updated content. It provides an introduction to both plasma physics and fusion technology at a level that can be understood by advanced undergraduates and graduate students in the physical sciences and related engineering disciplines. As such, the contents cover various plasma confinement concepts, the support technologies needed to confine the plasma, and the designs of ITER as well as future fusion reactors. With end of chapter problems for use in courses.
Statistical Thinking for Non-Statisticians in Drug Regulation, Second Edition, is a need-to-know guide to understanding statistical methodology, statistical data and results within drug development and clinical trials. It provides non-statisticians working in the pharmaceutical and medical device industries with an accessible introduction to the knowledge they need when working with statistical information and communicating with statisticians. It covers the statistical aspects of design, conduct, analysis and presentation of data from clinical trials in drug regulation and improves the ability to read, understand and critically appraise statistical methodology in papers and reports. As such, it is directly concerned with the day-to-day practice and the regulatory requirements of drug development and clinical trials. Fully conversant with current regulatory requirements, this second edition includes five new chapters covering Bayesian statistics, adaptive designs, observational studies, methods for safety analysis and monitoring and statistics for diagnosis. Authored by a respected lecturer and consultant to the pharmaceutical industry, Statistical Thinking for Non-Statisticians in Drug Regulation is an ideal guide for physicians, clinical research scientists, managers and associates, data managers, medical writers, regulatory personnel and for all non-statisticians working and learning within the pharmaceutical industry.
The publication of the second edition of this manual comes at an important juncture in the history of clinical research. As advances in information technology make it possible to link individuals and groups in diverse locations in jointly seeking the answers to pressing global health problems, it is critically important to remain vigilant about moral and ethical safeguards for every patient enrolled in a trial. Those who study this manual will be well aware of how to ensure patient safety along with fiscal responsibility, trial efficiency, and research integrity. —Robert Harrington, Professor of Medicine, Director, Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, North Carolina, USA The Duke Clinical Research Institute (DCRI) is one of the world's leading academic clinical research organizations; its mission is to develop and share knowledge that improves the care of patients around the world through innovative clinical research. This concise handbook provides a practical «nuts and bolts» approach to the process of conducting clinical trials, identifying methods and techniques that can be replicated at other institutions and medical practices. Designed for investigators, research coordinators, CRO personnel, students, and others who have a desire to learn about clinical trials, this manual begins with an overview of the historical framework of clinical research, and leads the reader through a discussion of safety concerns and resulting regulations. Topics include Good Clinical Practice, informed consent, management of subject safety and data, as well as monitoring and reporting adverse events. Updated to reflect recent regulatory and clinical developments, the manual reviews the conduct of clinical trials research in an increasingly global context. This new edition has been further expanded to include: In-depth information on conducting clinical trials of medical devices and biologics The role and responsibilities of Institutional Review Boards, and Recent developments regarding subject privacy concerns and regulations. Ethical documents such as the Belmont Report and the Declaration of Helsinki are reviewed in relation to all aspects of clinical research, with a discussion of how researchers should apply the principles outlined in these important documents. This graphically appealing and eminently readable manual also provides sample forms and worksheets to facilitate data management and regulatory record retention; these can be modified and adapted for use at investigative sites.
Variety trials are an essential step in crop breeding and production. These trials are a significant investment in time and resources and inform numerous decisions from cultivar development to end-use. Crop Variety Trials: Methods and Analysis is a practical volume that provides valuable theoretical foundations as well as a guide to step-by-step implementation of effective trial methods and analysis in determining the best varieties and cultivars. Crop Variety Trials is divided into two sections. The first section provides the reader with a sound theoretical framework of variety evaluation and trial analysis. Chapters provide insights into the theories of quantitative genetics and principles of analyzing data. The second section of the book gives the reader with a practical step-by-step guide to accurately analyzing crop variety trial data. Combined these sections provide the reader with fuller understanding of the nature of variety trials, their objectives, and user-friendly database and statistical tools that will enable them to produce accurate analysis of data.
Cluster randomised trials are trials in which groups (or clusters) of individuals are randomly allocated to different forms of treatment. In health care, these trials often compare different ways of managing a disease or promoting healthy living, in contrast to conventional randomised trials which randomise individuals to different treatments, classically comparing new drugs with a placebo. They are increasingly common in health services research. This book addresses the statistical, practical, and ethical issues arising from allocating groups of individuals, or clusters, to different interventions. Key features: Guides readers through the stages of conducting a trial, from recruitment to reporting. Presents a wide range of examples with particular emphasis on trials in health services research and primary care, with both principles and techniques explained. Topics are specifically presented in the order in which investigators think about issues when they are designing a trial. Combines information on the latest developments in the field together with a practical guide to the design and implementation of cluster randomised trials. Explains principles and techniques through numerous examples including many from the authors own experience. Includes a wide range of references for those who wish to read further. This book is intended as a practical guide, written for researchers from the health professions including doctors, psychologists, and allied health professionals, as well as statisticians involved in the design, execution, analysis and reporting of cluster randomised trials. Those with a more general interest will find the plentiful examples illuminating.