Women's Human Rights: Seeking Gender Justice in a Globalising Age explores the emergence of transnational, UN-oriented, feminist advocacy for womens human rights, especially over the past three decades. It identifies the main feminist influences that have shaped the movement liberal, radical, third world and cosmopolitan and exposes how the Western, legalist, state-centric, and liberal biases of mainstream human rights discourse impede the realisation of human rights in womens lives everywhere. The book traces the evolution of the womens human rights movement through an examination of its key issues, debates, and practical interventions in international law and policy arenas. This includes efforts to: Develop global gender equality norms via the UN Womens Convention Frame violence against women as a human rights issue Address gender-based crimes in conflict situations, include women in conflict resolution and post-conflict reconstruction, and challenge new forms of militarism Highlight the gendered human rights dimensions of widening inequalities in a context of neo-liberal globalisation Develop human rights responses to anti-feminist fundamentalist movements with a focus on reproductive and sexual rights Ultimately, Women's Human Rights reaffirms a commitment to critically reinterpreted universal human rights principles and demonstrates the vital role that bottom-up, transnational movements play in making them a reality in women's lives.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (10 December 1948 at Palais de Chaillot, Paris). The Declaration arose directly from the experience of the Second World War and represents the first global expression of rights to which all human beings are inherently entitled. It consists of 30 articles which have been elaborated in subsequent international treaties, regional human rights instruments, national constitutions and laws. The International Bill of Human Rights consists of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and its two Optional Protocols. In 1966 the General Assembly adopted the two detailed Covenants, which complete the International Bill of Human Rights; and in 1976, after the Covenants had been ratified by a sufficient number of individual nations, the Bill took on the force of international law.
The language of human rights has become the public vocabulary of our contemporary world. Ironically, as the political influence of human rights has grown, their philosophical justification has become ever more controversial. Building on a theory of discourse ethics and communicative rationality, this book addresses the politics and philosophy of human rights against the background of the broader social transformations that are shaping the modern world. Rejecting the reduction of international human rights to the Trojan horse of a neo-liberal empire's bid for world power, as well as the conservative objections to legal cosmopolitanism as encroachments upon democratic sovereignty, Benhabib develops two key concepts to move beyond these false antitheses. International human rights norms need contextualization in specific polities through processes of what she calls 'democratic iterations.' Furthermore, such norms have a 'jurisgenerative power,' in that they enable new actors to enter fields of social and political contestation; they promote new vocabularies for public claim-making and anticipate a justice to come. Ranging over themes such as sovereignty, citizenship, genocide, European anti-semitism, the crisis of the nation-state, and the 'scarf affair' in contemporary Europe and Turkey, this major new book by one of our leading political theorists reflects upon the political transformations of our times and makes a compelling case for a cosmopolitanism without illusions.
Reflecting recent global developments, the second edition of this illuminating introduction to Islamic history expands its coverage of the Qur’an, Sufism, and Muslim views on human rights, including the rights of women. An expanded new edition of this concise, illuminating introduction to Islam, written by one of the field’s leading scholars Spans Islamic history from the life of Muhammad and the birth of Islamic ideals, through Islam’s phenomenal geographical expansion and cultural development, to the creation of modern states and its role in today’s global society Features expanded coverage of the Qur’an, Sufism, and Muslim views on human rights, including the rights of women Includes fascinating vignettes of Islamic life, representing mainstream Muslim viewpoints on issues of global concern Explores the complex interrelationships of cultural, political, and ideological developments woven throughout Islamic history, drawing on specific examples including current developments in Pakistan
Taking as a starting point the widely accepted view that states confronted with terrorism must find a proper equilibrium between their respective obligations of preserving fundamental rights and fighting terrorism effectively, this book seeks to demonstrate how the design and enforcement of a human rights instrument may influence the result of that exercise. An attempt is made to answer the question how a legal order's approach to the limitation of rights may shape decision-making trade-offs between the demands of liberty and the need to guarantee individual and collective security. In doing so, special attention is given to the difference between the adjudicative methods of balancing and categorisation. The book challenges the conventional wisdom that individual rights, in times of crisis, are better served by the application of categorical rather than flexible models of limitation. In addition, the work considers the impact of a variety of other factors, including the discrepancies in enforcing an international convention as opposed to a national constitution and the use of emergency provisions permitting derogations from human rights obligations in time of war or a public emergency.
A Companion to South Asia in the Past provides the definitive overview of research and knowledge about South Asia’s past, from the Pleistocene to the historic era in India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Nepal, provided by a truly global team of experts. The most comprehensive and detailed scholarly treatment of South Asian archaeology and biological anthropology, providing ground-breaking new ideas and future challenges Provides an in-depth and broad view of the current state of knowledge about South Asia’s past, from the Pleistocene to the historic era in India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Nepal A comprehensive treatment of research in a crucial region for human evolution and biocultural adaptation A global team of scholars together present a varied set of perspectives on South Asian pre- and proto-history
We must do the impossible.Everything else will be done by others.The task of this book is not only to bring arguments and reasoning about the impact of respect for human rights on the economies of countries. The task is to formulate the goal of the 21st century.
Microbiota-associated pathology can be a direct result of changes in general bacterial composition, such as might be found in periodontitis and bacterial vaginosis, and/or as the result of colonization and/or overgrowth of so called keystone species. The disruption in the composition of the normal human microbiota, or dysbiosis, plays an integral role in human health and human disease. The Human Microbiota and Human Chronic Disease: Dysbioses as a Cause of Human Pathology discusses the role of the microbiota in maintaining human health. The text introduces the reader to the biology of microbial dysbiosis and its potential role in both bacterial disease and in idiopathic chronic disease states. Divided into five sections, the text delineates the concept of the human bacterial microbiota with particular attention being paid to the microbiotae of the gut, oral cavity and skin. A key methodology for exploring the microbiota, metagenomics, is also described. The book then shows the reader the cellular, molecular and genetic complexities of the bacterial microbiota, its myriad connections with the host and how these can maintain tissue homeostasis. Chapters then consider the role of dysbioses in human disease states, dealing with two of the commonest bacterial diseases of humanity – periodontitis and bacterial vaginosis. The composition of some, if not all microbiotas can be controlled by the diet and this is also dealt with in this section. The discussion moves on to the major ‘idiopathic’ diseases afflicting humans, and the potential role that dysbiosis could play in their induction and chronicity. The book then concludes with the therapeutic potential of manipulating the microbiota, introducing the concepts of probiotics, prebiotics and the administration of healthy human faeces (faecal microbiota transplantation), and then hypothesizes as to the future of medical treatment viewed from a microbiota-centric position. Provides an introduction to dysbiosis, or a disruption in the composition of the normal human microbiota Explains how microbiota-associated pathology and other chronic diseases can result from changes in general bacterial composition Explores the relationship humans have with their microbiota, and its significance in human health and disease Covers host genetic variants and their role in the composition of human microbial biofilms, integral to the relationship between human health and human disease Authored and edited by leaders in the field, The Human Microbiota and Human Chronic Disease will be an invaluable resource for clinicians, pathologists, immunologists, cell and molecular biologists, biochemists, and system biologists studying cellular and molecular bases of human diseases.
South African photographer Zanele Muholi (born 1972) offers an unflinching portrait of the lives, politics and aesthetics of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex community in South Africa. A lesbian and human rights activist, Muholi uses her photographs to raise awareness about the LGBTI community in a country where violence against gays is commonplace.
We all have ten types of human in our head.They’re the people we become when we face life’s most difficult decisions. We want to believe there are things we would always do – or things we never would. But how can we be sure? What are our limits? Do we have limits?The Ten Types of Human is a pioneering examination of human nature. It looks at the best and worst that human beings are capable of, and asks why. It explores the frontiers of the human experience, uncovering the forces that shape our thoughts and actions in extreme situations.From courtrooms to civil wars, from Columbus to child soldiers, Dexter Dias takes us on a globe-spanning journey in search of answers, touching on the lives of some truly exceptional people.Combining cutting-edge neuroscience, social psychology and human rights research, The Ten Types of Human is a provocative map to our hidden selves. It provides a new understanding of who we are – and who we can be.
Running for Freedom, Fourth Edition, updates historian Steven Lawson’s classic volume detailing the history of African-American civil rights and black politics from the beginning of World War II to the present day. Offers comprehensive coverage of the African-American struggle for civil rights in the U.S. from 1941 to 2014 Integrates events relating to America’s civil rights story at both the local and national levels Features new material on Obama’s first term in office and the first year of his second term Includes addition of such timely issues as the Trayvon Martin case, the March on Washington 5oth anniversary, state voter suppression efforts, and Supreme Court ruling on Voting Rights Act
This book, on the ergonomics of human−machine systems, is aimed at engineers specializing in informatics, automation, production or robotics, who are faced with a significant dilemma during the conception of human−machine systems. On the one hand, the human operator guarantees the reliability of the system and has been known to salvage numerous critical situations through an ability to reason in unplanned, imprecise and uncertain situations; on the other hand, the human operator can be unpredictable and create disturbances in the automated system. The first part of the book is dedicated to the methods of human-centered design, from three different points of view, the various chapters focusing on models developed by human engineers and functional models to explain human behavior in their environment, models of cognitive psychology and models in the domain of automobile driving. Part 2 develops the methods of evaluation of the human−machine systems, looking at the evaluation of the activity of the human operator at work and human error analysis methods. Finally, Part 3 is dedicated to human−machine cooperation, where the authors show that a cooperative agent comprises a know-how and a so-called know-how-to-cooperate and show the way to design and evaluate that cooperation in real industrial contexts.